All Questions

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0answers
2 views

'If P were true' vs 'If P is the case'

Counterfactuals have this form: If [S:] P were true, Q would be true. Counterfactuals are not material conditionals! Material conditional: If [P:] P is the case, then Q is the case. ...
-1
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0answers
5 views

why “ logical reasoning” is an umbrella for philosophy?

Why "logical reasoning" is an umbrella for philosophy? Philosophy encounters everything. Logical reasoning itself is an abstract idea about humans trying to understand subjects of life using a ...
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0answers
2 views

the method from descartes' Rules for guiding one's intelligence rule 4

the method from descartes' Rules for guiding one's intelligence rule 4. I can't find the method what he explained. Would someone tell me what is the method what he explained? does he explained the ...
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0answers
3 views

Intuition - Fallacy of Strengthening the Antecedent

1. What's the intuition behind the wrongness of this Fallacy (the structure of which I typed here)? 2. Please explain why this fallacy is named Strengthening the Antecedent? I guess that R is the ...
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0answers
3 views

Flaws in this example of Fallacy of Strengthening the Antecedent?

I define S as sentence. I simplify the items in the original example to streamline it. All times are in AM. S1. Necessarily, if [R.] I had started at 5 then [P.] I started before 6. S2. If it ...
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1answer
13 views

Logically valid but fallacious?

BUT informal fallacies are not limited to problematic arguments but also to problematic techniques in many contexts of rhetoric and argumentation. Thus, it need not be logically invalid to be ...
0
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1answer
9 views

Are there any naturally occuring non-embedded manifolds?

Mathematicians are always insisting that manifolds need not be embedded, and by Occams Razor, are best thought without the surrounding ambient space. For example, the surface of a table is a 2d ...
-1
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0answers
17 views

How virtual communities build and decease?

On the internet virtual communities build and then cease to exist with abrupt changes. E.g. once usenet was a forum for many questions, now stack exchange, but that can change over time. What is the ...
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1answer
39 views

Taoism and Christianity

The current Wikipedia article on Taoism contains a relatively prominent section devoted to arguments in favor of an alleged similarity between Taoism and Christianity. Some authors have dealt with ...
2
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1answer
37 views

Why does Philosophy of Language matter?

Why does philosophy of language matter? I'm not trying to troll here; I'm interested in what people who find this subject fascinating are so fascinated about!
4
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0answers
71 views

Can a “real” paradox exist?

Given a statement, S: "S is not true." We arrive at a paradoxical solution whether or not we assume S to be true or false. Does this automatically imply that we have made an error in logic, ...
2
votes
1answer
36 views

How to start studying philosophical logic?

As I'm planing to study Philosophical logic, I've some important questions. For example, I wonder: 1-Should I start with the algebraic approach? Should I start with another approach?(which one?) 2- ...
1
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0answers
45 views

Is it ever okay to break a promise?

Is it okay to break a promise? A scenario for you. You and a close friend, known by the nickname Moonlight, have made a promise. This promise is serious and both of you fully understand the ...
3
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5answers
2k views

Does the “Lord's Prayer” increase corruption?

Consider this part of the Lord's Prayer: "and forgive (1) us our offenses, as we also have forgiven (2) our offenders" "perdoai (1) as nossas ofensas assim como nós perdoamos (2) a quem nos ...
2
votes
1answer
31 views

How to discharge an assumption?

I am proving the follow argument [(A ↔ B ) → C] ⊢ [ - ( A ^ B) V C ] Using the following set of rules I, ^E, vI, vE, →I, →E, ↔I, ↔E, --E, -I Here are my steps but I got to the point where I ...
1
vote
1answer
26 views

What are the names, or arguments of the atomic sentence “Max ate a cake” and “I ate a cake.”

What are the names, or arguments of the atomic sentence Max ate a cake and I ate a cake. ? First of all, "Max" is definitely a name. But is "cake" a name? And in the second sentence, is ...
5
votes
3answers
124 views

Do mathematician always agree at the end?

I know it's a off beat question but I thought philosophical answer would be better. I've been trying to study some different sciences in my life, ranging from biology to mathematics, and if I try to ...
1
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0answers
17 views

Would it be correct or incorrect to interpret Aristotle's view of Tragedy as a ritual?

My question relates specifically to the use of the Greek verb δρώντων part pl pres act masc gen attic epic doric aeolic contr in Poetics, 1449b-28 in which tragedy is defined, among other things ...
2
votes
1answer
60 views

Logical Consequence and Tarski's World

I found this question in an old exam paper. I have no idea what is expected from a question like this. Consider the Tarski's world below. This world illustrates that ¬∃xTet(x) is NOT a logical ...
0
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0answers
20 views

Philosophy and Psychology of Emotion

" We are all comfortable using terms to refer to things that seem non-physical objects, such as "Tuesday," "justice," and "luck." These things seem to be able to affect physical things, e.g. "Tuesday" ...
3
votes
9answers
254 views

Is abortion anything to do with choice?

Can the pro/anti-abortion debate ever be about choice? Is it, in fact, 100% about life? What I'm positing is: if a foetus counts as life, then the same rules apply as with any other life. If a foetus ...
2
votes
1answer
72 views

Help with a proof for the following arguments

I want to proof the following argument from both sides using the following rules ^I, ^E, vI, vE, →I, →E, ↔I, ↔E, --E, -I Argument [(A ↔ B ) → C] ⊢ [ - ( A ^ B) V C ] Please let me know ...
3
votes
1answer
163 views

Do Mobius Strips have a front and back?

Mobius strips, are generally held to have only one side - if one marks a place on the strip and on what looks like the other side then a pencil can draw a line between these two points without ever ...
1
vote
2answers
215 views

Is it possible to provide a proof of the following arguments?

G & ¬ H ¬ H ⇒ H Therefore, S & I Is it possible to prove the validity of this argument without having any information of S or I in the premises? H ...
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2answers
65 views

Assuming right and wrong aren't arbitrary

Suppose that there is an answer to the question "why be moral", such that "it is irrational to be immoral or at least... not irrational to be moral". ...
17
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3answers
2k views

In what way(s) does popular New Atheism fail to be philosophical?

I've seen some derision against the popular New Atheism movement, in particular against Richard Dawkins, Christopher Hitchens, and Sam Harris (particularly interesting since he makes a big deal that ...
2
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1answer
24 views

The definition of morality in Divine Command theory?

What is the definition of the morality in divine command theory? What does that mean to say that something is moral or something is immoral?
2
votes
5answers
69 views

Question regarding sound argument

Sound argument is an argument which is both valid and it's premises are true. But my question is, why do we mention in the definition of the sound argument that "it's premises are true" when we've ...
1
vote
2answers
43 views

What's the difference between being in a simultion vs base reality

Having articles like Bostrom's "Simulation argument" gives us the probability that we are almost certainly living inside a simulation. Putting aside the emotional, intuitive discomfort about it, what ...
1
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1answer
42 views

Proof validity methods other than truth tables

I have read or heard some time ago that truth tables cannot be used to validate arguments which involves the use of quantifiers i.e. in predicate or quantificational logic where you can find ...
1
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1answer
50 views

Which questions have philosophers answered more satisfyingly than mere common sense?

Philosophy can be seen as a huge domain: studying everything that exists and questioning its inner mechanic, purpose, moral (non exhaustive list). For instance stuyding the laws of nature, logic, ...
1
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2answers
48 views

Should I be content with short-term happiness and avoid thinking about long-term concerns?

I am very happy, if judged from a third-party perspective. I have absolutely no problems related to relationships, behaviour, health, finance, knowledge, etc. In fact, lately, I've been getting ...
1
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1answer
43 views

Zarathustra and the History of Western Philosophy

Zarathustra is famously invoked by Nietzsche to sweep away a univocal theology - Western Christian monotheism; in the history of religions Zarathustra is famous as the founder of Zorastrianism; this a ...
1
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1answer
43 views

Is the gender divide a class divide?

Simone Weil wrote in Gravity & Grace: Up to now, history has only shown us societies divided up into classes, except for altogether primitive societies in which no differentiation has yet ...
3
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2answers
93 views

Why are the laws of nature 'always and everywhere the same'?

Spinoza wrote in his Ethics that: the laws and rules of Nature…are always and everywhere the same This so as to deny a categorical difference between man and nature; Spinoza affirms that man is ...
2
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4answers
127 views

Must infinity involve repetitions?

Infinity for Nietzsche in at least one line of argument involves the eternal return; he refers to it in the Die fröhliche Wissenschaft and Also sprach Zarathustra; most completely in his Notes on the ...
2
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1answer
18 views

How does the modern notion of 'empiricism' stack up against the Platonist and Neoplatonist concept of mind and understanding above sense and opinion?

I'm a student of philosophy carefully reading through the Britannica Great Books series. In our homeschool discussions, occurring each Wednesday afternoon, I'm finding most of the questions ...
1
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1answer
33 views

Is Aristotle's Mean exactly in the middle?

Did Aristotle mean by 'Mean' exactly the middle between two extremes, or just some "sweet spot" that need not be the middle at all?
0
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1answer
30 views

Is the line between use and mention always defined?

Consider the sentence "I like Heroin", meaning that you enjoy the famous song by the Velvet Underground. Is the expression in italics used or mentioned? To me it seems that it's a use, but a weird ...
0
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3answers
44 views

Regarding attempted proofs related to other religions

Have there been any philosophical attempted proofs of the existence of Vishnu or Brahma or of the Divinity of Buddha? What about the existence of what the Freemasons believe in or those 'Thetans' that ...
3
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4answers
93 views

How much formal logic and mathematics would I have to study if I focused on continental philosophy?

Based on what I’ve read, and I hope I got it right, continental philosophy is a loose term for the different schools of thought that resist the influence of the analytic tradition. Critical theory, ...
1
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2answers
67 views

In Kant's ethics, is it allowed to be richer than other people?

I've been reading a bit about Kant's moral philosophy. What I'm now trying to figure out is if the Categorical Imperative would demand a redistribution of wealth. Or in other words, if according to ...
3
votes
4answers
55 views

Does the lack of absurdities in our universe call into question the validity of multiverse theories?

Does the lack of absurdities in our universe call into question the validity of multi verse theories? If the theories about multi verse are to be true and we have explained the immensely improbable ...
2
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2answers
69 views

Does anyone have a good answer to or deconstruction of the 'problem of other minds'?

I'm absolutely obsessed with the problem. I've seen many people dismiss it, and I've seen many arguments against it, none of which seem to cut the logical mustard. The problem for me boils down to ...
2
votes
1answer
89 views

What kind of philospher believes many philospical issues can be reduced to defining words?

I will take Fatalism vs Compatibilism as an example. I hold that the only difference between them is the definition of free will. Namely, I prefer the Compatibilistic definition, that free will is ...
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2answers
43 views

Good introductory reading to skepticism?

In various works that I've read recently, the writers referred to the skeptics several times, and I thought that maybe I should try actually learning something about them. I was hoping for some text ...
7
votes
4answers
213 views

Can philosophy overcome “the two cultures” divide?

Snow noted a growing divide between "the two cultures" in Western society, scientists and "literary intellectuals", who became increasingly self-absorbed and incomprehensible to each other. One of ...
1
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2answers
62 views

Method to derive conclusions

Suppose, you have been given the following assumptions: 1. (W ⊃ (F ∨ M)) 2. ~F 3. (M ⊃ A) In what way you can come up with conclusion from this? What kind of inferences rules can be used here? I ...
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6answers
2k views

Climate change statement - is there a logical fallacy here?

"97% of scientists agree that climate change is caused by humans - if 97% of scientists told you a plane was going to crash, would you get on it?" Arguments about the existence of climate change ...
0
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1answer
62 views

Did Wittgenstein say something about intuition for logic?

When one creates some logical content, like in programming, only naives think that this is a rational way of thinking. In fact, this is based on patterns and intuition. Did Wittgenstein say anything ...

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