I’ve spent a lot of time trying to find how to get started with philosophy but I can’t. It seems that getting started with computer programming is nothing in comparison. With computer programming it’s like this here are if statements and for loops, here’s how you declare classes and create instances, and so on. Maybe somebody can suggest a down-to-earth, realistic learning approach for philosophy?
If you have a college nearby, you could take an Intro to Philosophy class. I took one last semester and enjoyed it so much that I'm picking it up as a second major. The benefit of an intro class is that you:
Barring attendance to an actual university, aspiring philosophers today have a huge resource at their disposal: the internet. You can find many complete lecture series online. While you don't have the benefit of having an actual professor on hand to answer your questions, there is still much available to be learned this way. Here are some links:
And there are plenty lectures (video or just audio) "shared" online if you know where to look...
Two preliminary suggestions: First, either take a good course in symbolic logic, or work your way through a good introductory course in symbolic logic. If you opt for the self-study approach, we can discuss books. Pat Suppes's is a good one, but there are lots of others.
Second, browse around in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, http://plato.stanford.edu/. (Full disclosure: I work for the encyclopedia.)
I'm happy to continue this discussion, here or elsewhere.
I might suggest an alternative to taking a college course: you might be able to find a community philosophy discussion group at meetup.com. One common meetup is Socrates Café, which aims for philosophical discussion without some of the pretentiousness that they sometimes come with it.
I'd also recommend a few books:
Michael Sandel's public lectures about justice might be a pretty good start, if a course isn't what you're opting for. it's very accessible but asks some tough and questions:
I would suggest having discussions with philosophically interested friends over a beer or two about interesting questions big and small such as for example, "how do we know anything?" or "is it wrong for a necrophiliac to practice what he desires if it was done fully in private and with a fully sanitized and well preserved cadaver that has given consent before death? if not, why not?" You might not get anywhere, but it's pretty fun with the right company, and you get a taste of what philosophers have to get good at.
You can talk about some of the reasonably down to earth questions given in introductory lectures like Sandel's or the ones linked to by Josh1billion, or any thing else that might interest you and who ever you're talking philosophy to. As long as at least one of you keep asking a genuine 'why?', you will end up in a pickle (sometimes an interesting philosophical pickle). Resolving and spotting these holes in reasoning, I think, is an important part of the training of a philosopher, no matter which area of philosophy one finds most interesting.
But if you're looking for a rule book, like they give in a programming and such, familiarizing yourself the form of valid arguments will be as close as you can get to that. These will help with spotting where people's reasoning might have gone awry (or are deliberately sneaky.
I don't have a good suggestion for books on argument forms (anyone?).
I also found talking to grad students about their thesis a good way to get up to speed about something I'm not too familiar with. They might appreciate it too, if you ask them the right (interesting) questions.
read the suggested readings of intro course and talk to philosophically inclined folks about what puzzles you will be good too, as it will force you to explain yourself.
what marry didn't know is something that almost everyone reads, almost everyone will form an opinion on but it's actually not that easy to establish your position solidly.
Last but not least the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy is a philosophy student's best reference (for all those confusing terms). It's free, online and the articles are written by professional philosophers.
As others have suggested, the best alternative is to take a college class.
If this is impossible, I'd strongly recommend Jay Garfield's video series on "The Meaning of Life". It's not cheap, but Jay's a brilliant scholar and an excellent teacher (I studied with him a few decades ago), and the course is a great introduction to how to read philosophy.
I was first introduced to philosophy was when I was eleven. I had a teacher at my school who extremely enjoyed philosophy and he introduced me to Aristotle. As my knowledge was extremely limited at that age we began discussing nothing more than very major philosophical ideas. Something you have no doubt done for you to be interested in philosophy. From then on I tried to read other philosophical texts but I simply could not interpret them to any significant degree. It was five years later that I joined a philosophy class in high school. From this class I was introduced to many texts that have further increased my interest in philosophy.
Now, what does this mean to you?
I found that starting very generally and conversing with others about philosophy was a great starting point. This site is an amazing resource for that. After try to pick up the "simpler" texts. By this I mean the message itself can be seen either plainly, or the author's true intention discovered without great knowledge of the subject. My first major text was the Republic of Plato which I have related to quite a bit in my philosophical studies. Finally the thing that will complete your philosophical studies is discussion. No matter how well you analyse the text discussing with others will open up underlying messages in the text.
Good Luck, and enjoy your love of wisdom
I think before picking any particular philosophy, it's better to aim for a brode understanding of the history of philosophy, particularly as it has developed in the West. I also highly recommend Sophie's World. It is a very entertaining novel, and all the while offers in simple language a very good understanding of some of the core ideas of important philosophers. Once you become familiar with what philosophy is all about, you can either 1) pick a more thorough treatment of its history by reading Russell or Durant's books, or 2) start reading some of the essentials; here is a pretty standard roadmap (Plat: Republic, Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics (or Categories and Metaphysics if you are brave), Descartes: Meditations, Spinoza: Ethics, Hume: Treatise concerning human understanding, Kant: Critique of pure reason, Schopenhauer: The world as a will and representation, Wittgenstein: Tractatus, Heidegger: read being and time if you are brave, otherwise at least read a few of his essays such as the origin of the meaning of art, or the question concerning technology. You also need to read commentaries as not all of these texts are accessible, but get used to, and don't be afraid of, reading original texts, there is no substitute for that. A great collection of commentaries on various subjects is Stanford's encyclopedia as well as Cambridge companion series).
You may find some of these philosophers (e.g., Heidegger) to be outright lunatics, but do make an effort to read something from them.
Lastly, this is not an easy journey and will likely take many years, and you are more likely to give up in the middle up. But even if you do, you will probably come out with something valuable. Remember that philosophy is an activity.
Going to class is not essential, there are some great resources on the internet.
I would suggest you cover a basic history of philosophy - from Socrates to Satre - for a more general overview. There are many books about this topic (some even named From Socrates to Satre!).
If you're interested in ethics: I would suggest you start by covering the basics of ethical systems: starting with Kantian deontology and Utilitarianism. It is also key that when learning ethics you learn Hume's Is-Ought distinction and major failing point for philosophy students.
Learn the basic terminology, you can do this by browsing Wikipedia articles on philosophy.
I would highly recommend that you read A Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics for an introduction to Kant, take it with a pinch of salt, as some of his mathematical work has been falsified.
P.S. The Stanford Encyclopaedia on Philosophy is a great resource.