Is Buddhism a philosophy (love of wisdom), a systematic approach to analysing experience (subjective science), an ethical and logical framework, a theory and conclusion that can be tested?
Yes it is.
Does Buddhism challenge fragile beliefs held without empirical evidence such as notions of a vengeful creator god, a sense of self or soul?
Yes it does.
Is Buddhism a religion as undefined by Wikipedia, "an organized collection of belief systems, cultural systems, and world views that relate humanity to spirituality"
respect for what is sacred,
reverence for the gods,
obligation, the bond between man and the gods
Latin religiō, ... *le-ligarean ... lego "read", "choose", "go over again" or "consider carefully"
ligare "bind, connect", ... prefixed re-ligare, ... "to reconnect,"
Yes as far as a community. No as far as the ultimate goal is nibbana (nirvana) which means 'unbinding', release, detachment, blowing out.
Are you likely to find Buddhists argue with you even if you do not engage them in debates of theological speculation?
No, I do not think so.