The Christmas Dilemma: Suppose there are 2 children siblings and 3 Christmas presents. 2 Christmas presents have a value of $20 and 1 Christmas present has a value of $200. Each child can be given one and only one Christmas present and no child can share their present with the other child. The present that isn't used will be destroyed.
Is it better to give one child the $200 present and another the $20 present, or give both children the $20 present, and destroy the $200 present?
The Extension Problem: Suppose there are two identical twins starving in a desert and there is enough food to allow just one of them to survive if they eat that food. If they share the food both will die. Should we arbitrarily give the food to one of them, or give the food to neither of them?