There are no modern philosophers who continue the tradition of the Vienna circle. But you're in luck, nearly all physicists continue it, even if they never heard of the Vienna circle. The philosophy started in physics, with Mach and Carnap (who was trained in physics), and it cannot die in physics, because it is essential for understanding physics, at least past 1900. Relativity, quantum mechanics, string theory, holography, that's all positivism.
This is why physicists ignore philosophers, and will continue to ignore them, until they get with the ball on this. There are no refutations of positivism, there cannot be, any physicist has grown so comfortable with this position, they can see it is self consistent.
What there was in philosophy was a horrified reaction: it resolved all the classical questions! Instantly. And not in a way that made previous philosophers look good, it showed the questions were meaningless! Of course philosophers buried it, it makes the classics in the field look dated and stupid. It was an academic political nightmare.
But it also has the advantage of being correct, and on the internet the position of academic politics is about as powerful as "First post!". So this can't be hidden. You can read the modern physics literature for modern positivism.