Ancient philosophy consists, at least in the west, of the work by philosophers before around ~480 CE.

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What are some contemporary debates regarding Plato's & Aristotle's writings?

What are some major contemporary issues in Plato and Aristotle scholarship in recent years?
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Must everything in time be subject to time?

Take Lucretian atoms, are they subject to time? For how they arrange themselves, when they move and collide; they are subject to time; but this is in relation to other atoms, or to the place they ...
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How accurate can Plato's recital of dialogues & events be? [duplicate]

In Dialogues, there are hundreds of conversations between Socrates and many others that was written word by word. Did Plato actually write everything down as it happened, or try to recite from memory ...
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What was ancient Philosophy written on/with?

What did ancient philosophers, like Plato, use to write their works on/with, physically? (Tree bark, animal skin, types of writing utensils, etc)
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What Epictetus meant in “Enchiridon” XLVI?

In Enchiridon ch. XLVI Epictetus wrote: If any conversation should arise among uninstructed persons about any theorem, generally be silent [...] And when a man shall say to you, that you know ...
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What developments prompted Cliffords picture of spacetime?

In 1870, Clifford, the English mathematician and sometime philosopher wrote the following in his book, On the Space theory of Matter; I hold as a fact: That small portions of space are in ...
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Is “the mind” in Phaedo the same as “Nous” in Neoplatonic philosophy?

Phaedo 97c speaks about Anaxagoras that he says "that it is the mind that arranges and causes all things. I was pleased with this theory of cause, and it seemed to me to be somehow right that the mind ...
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Was Socrates a monotheist?

I know my question seems weird, but in Plato's books Apology, Crito, and Phaedo (and probably in other books since I read only these 3 and I am in the middle of the third one) when Socrates want to ...
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Is there a theory of time consistent with Heraclitus?

Heraclitus is recorded as saying: Upon those who step into the same river, different and again different waters flow (Arius Didymus, Dox. Gr.) It is not possible to step twice into the same ...
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In respect of Pyrrho and the late skeptical tradition

How possible is to assume the metaphysical interpretation of Pyrrho's philosophy and still see him as a predecesor of the Sextus skeptical tradition? Isn't any kind of "skeptical spirit" in the ...
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Is the noumena, in a sense apeiron?

Consider Anaximanders apeiron, the indeterminate in the context of Platos theory of Forms; a form, an idea makes the indeterminate determinate in some particular way (In Anaximanders system - rotation ...
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Prometheus and philosophy

Camus used the myth of Sisyphus to interrogate the human condition, Freud used the myth of Oedipus in commenting on Power and Sexuality at the site of the family. The myth of Prometheus who stole ...
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Were there any prominent philosophers / philosophies pre-Ancient Greece?

Do most modern ways of thinking which stem back to ancient times originate in Greece, or have any important ideas come from before that time? What, if any, was the role of the philosopher in ...
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What Did Plotinus Mean by Contemplation?

Plotinus' philosophy is intriguing, but his use of contemplation stumps me. In particular, he speaks of non-humans (even non-living things IIRC) contemplating. So what does he mean by contemplation? ...
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Factors causing entelechia not to realize

Is there a term in Aristotle's work for the factors that cause entelechia not to realize? Does he address these somewhere? I mean, bodies work in certain energeia and can be interrupted from ...
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Can a priori principles be applied to deduce 'Principal Bundles' as principles in Modern Physics?

Kant supplied a priori arguments for Newtonian Physics in his Metaphysics of Natural Science Has something similar been done for Modern Physics; which in its geometrical intepretation are concieved ...
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Why doesn't Parmenides argument hold for fields - or does it?

The SEP points out For Descartes argued in his 1644 Principles of Philosophy (see Book II) that the essence of matter was extension (i.e., size and shape) because any other attribute of bodies ...
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453 views

What social class was Socrates from?

Its well known that Plato was from the aritocratic elite of Athenian society. In his writings Socrates figure as his pre-eminent philosophical spokesperson. There is a adage, which might be a truism ...
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Aristoi vs. Hoi Polloi - Was it a genuine division created by Heraclitus or was it somehow misinterpreted?(and its implications)

When I was looking for information about the novel The Collector, there was a paragraph on the writer's intention of writing about a division supposedly proposed by ancient Greek philosopher ...
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Why is Nietzsche so against Socrates?

Nietzsche recalls the story that Socrates says that 'he has been a long time sick', meaning that life itself is a sickness; Nietszche accuses him of being a sick man, a man against the instincts of ...
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Can Euclid's Elements be used to rigorously prove 2+2=4?

It is possible to formally prove that 2+2=4 using Peano's five axioms for the natural numbers and elementary set theory (actually a long and tedious process). Is it possible to prove it based on the ...
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Chrysippus and Strict Implicature

In A History of Ancient Philosophy, Karsten Friis Johansen claims that Chrysippus offers a theory of truth for conditionals that is a version of strict implicature and intensional semantics. However, ...
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Who were the major innovators of new types of syllogisms?

Who were the major innovators of new kinds of syllogisms (i.e. introduced disjunctive syllogisms, etc) in the ancient and medieval periods aside from Aristotle, Theophrastus, the Stoics, and ...
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Did Thales really argue this?

Neil deGrasse Tyson in “Deeper, Deeper, Deeper Still” (Cosmos) says something to the following effect. The ancient Greek philosopher Thales argued that natural events such as weather patterns ...
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Element Earth in ancient Greece

Assuming that it is somehow clear what the ancient Greeks saw in their mind's eye when they talked about the elements (substances) Air, Water and Fire, I wonder what they had in mind when they talked ...
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Does entelechy have a contrary?

As I understand it, entelechy is a term that is associated with Aristotle who used it in the sense of the actualisation or complete realisation of an entity's potential. As far as we know, was ...
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What is the difference between Epicurean sense-perception and Qualia?

In the SEP, on its discussion of ancient theories of the soul, they say: Epicurus is an atomist, and in accordance with his atomism he takes the soul, like everything else that there is except for ...
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In what sense are a brown horse and a dark ox “three together”?

Confuzius started the fight against the sophists back then. After his death other sophists like Kung-sun Lung came and stated things like: "The shadow of a flying bird doesn't move." Ok, this ...
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Is there a pantheistic religion built by Xenophanes?

In my philosophical overview book its said that Xenophanes was the first to criticize the greek polytheism. He concluded that there can only be one god. My book also says that this god is omnipresent ...
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Are Hellenistic schools of philosophy also therapeutic regimes?

Martha C. Nussbaum argues in The Therapy of Desire: Theory and Practice in Hellenistic Ethics that all three major Hellenistic schools (Epicureanism, Stoicism, Skeptics) shared a practical, ...
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What properties can Void have?

Parmenides suggested that void being the lack of being cannot be and cannot be theorised, from his On Nature: Come now, I will tell thee - and do thou hearken to my saying and carry it away - the ...
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Are Irrational numbers 'Irrational'? [closed]

The usual story I've heard is that Numbers were held in great esteem by the Pythagoreans, that the discovery of numbers that were not ratios were held to be contra reason and thus irrational, as ...
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If Parmenides denied the reality of void, would he then have affirmed the reality of space?

Lucretious, in his poem de rerum natura had atoms moving through the void. It seems at least from a modern perspective that his void is what we would call space. The interesting question, which I ...
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Was Newtons corpuscular theory of light influenced by that of Democritus?

Democritus theory of perception hypothesised that eidola were atom-thin images of an object carried into the eye. Of course Newton was a prominent defender of a corpuscular theory of light, as first ...
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How does democritus account for eidola in terms of his atomic theory, if in fact he does?

Eidola, is the peeling away of images from an object that then enters the eye in Democritus theory of optics. However given his atomic theory, it seems puzzlng that he doesn't attempt to explain sight ...
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In greek philosophy, what is the difference between “gnosis” and “episteme”?

In greek philosophy, Plato especially, what is the difference between "gnosis" and "episteme" ? Both apparently designate different types of knowledge, but I couldn't find any precise description of ...
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Why did the Stoics believe that both children & animals have no emotions?

In the preface to the 2nd edition of The fragility of goodness, Martha Nussbaum writes: In order to be adequate, the Stoic theory needs three major sorts of modifications. First it needs a ...
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Is Oedipus Rex as an encounter of reason with myth?

I'm interested in alternate readings of Oedipus Rex, as opposed to the orthodox modern position embedded in Philosophy since Freud. I've noticed, that the wikipedia entry on Sophocles treatment of ...
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What is the most credible picture of Plato's Academy in Plato's time?

I assume there actually was an Academy set up by Plato and not taken over by him and made famous. In the paintings I've seen of it - admittedly done in the Renaissance -, it looks rather grand, like ...
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Why were books of philosophy available in the orchestra in Platos time?

This isn't a philosophical question per se; but asking for some clarifying background information on a classic book of philosophy. In Platos dialogue Apologia Socrates mentions that Anaxagoras books ...
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Has the early part of Platos Timaeus been used as evidence for establishing the origins of philosophy?

Although admitting that there was a long-running debate on the origins of Philosophy, Diogenes Laertius asserts that Philosophy began with the Greeks. This can mean only that the debate centred around ...
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Who was the Greek philosopher that created a punctuation mark meaning “or so it seems to me at the moment”?

In high school I read about an ancient Greek philosopher who developed a punctuation mark that signified "or so it seems to me at the moment." This made it easy for this philosopher to qualify his ...
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What was the importance of the Liars Paradox in Stoic Logic?

Chrysippus, an influential stoic philosopher wrote 21 books (chapters) in 12 works on the Liars Paradox. This implies that this paradox was of some importance to their epistomology and logic. Why?
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To what extent did the Presocratics borrow from neighbouring Babylonian & Egyptian cultures?

The IEP entry on Anaximander has: The astronomy of neighboring peoples, such as the Babylonians and the Egyptians, consists mainly of observations...In contrast, there exists only one report of an ...
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Is Parmenides a Dualist?

It's commonly understood that Parmenides denied the reality of change. That the world we perceive is an illusion. But is Parmenides better understood as the SEP indicates: Both Plato and ...
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Translation of a greek word in Stoic thought

I'm reading this article on Ariston of Chios. On the 9th page of the article Schofield uses " ἡγεμονιχόν", stating that the "What Ariston had noticed was that, although committed to a plurality of ...
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What triggered the philosophical movement in the ancient West?

The history of civilization in the West (i.e. Europe) goes back many thousands of years. Since well before 1000 BC there have been people living in what is now Turkey, Greece, and even Italy, in such ...
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Formal treatments for Stoic Logic

Philosophers such as Susanne Bobzien have provided work that provides a basis for axiomatising Stoic logic, however, the treatments I have seen focus on exposition of ancient works, with little ...
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Why did Epicureanism become “the main opponent” of Stoicism?

I was reading about Epicureanism on Wikipedia, and there I saw that, apparently, Epicureanism was in conflict with Stoicism and Platonism. I then read up on those two philosophies, and well, they do ...
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How do Neoplatonic interpretations differ from original Platonic ideas?

The Wikipedia entry on Neoplatonism says: Neoplatonists would have considered themselves simply Platonists, and the modern distinction is due to the perception that their philosophy contained ...