The construction, deconstruction and presentation of arguments for a position;

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The difference between argument, inference, deduction and proof?

I am trying to sort out the difference between argument, inference, deduction and proof. First, let's look at the distinction between argument and inference (if there is one). This online source ...
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33 views

Changing inconsistent to valid

I found the following passage in Mark Sainsbury's 'Logical Forms' If a collection of propositions is inconsistent, any argument whose premises consist of all but one of the collection, and whose ...
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41 views

Any video course on Logic & Logical fallacies?

After discovering this site and spending some time going through questions, I'm amazed by the answers and comments on Is 'guns don't kill people people kill people' a good argument?. Even though I'm ...
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105 views

Relative vs Absolute scale: Where does this argument fail?

If this can be formulated more rigidly, it might belong on Math instead, but for now I think this is the best place for it. The context of this is in scaling things. Lets say there exists a target ...
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640 views

What practical methods can be used to prove a negative claim?

I realize that the burden of proof falls squarely on the shoulders of the person making the claim, but they often seem unwilling to do the footwork. It is difficult to prove a negative case except by ...
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38 views

For arguments, besides validity and soundness, what of Potential Convincingness?

Source: 2 minutes 30 seconds juncture; Lecture 2, Video 4 (transcription); MITx: 24.00x Introduction to Philosophy; by MIT Associate Prof Caspar Hare PhD (Princeton) So good, interesting arguments ...
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144 views

Argument infinite regression problem about “why we should go vegan”

It should be familiar that some groups, particularly animal rights groups have always been trying to pursue others to go vegan One of the argument goes like this: "Animals want to live, and they ...
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66 views

Does scientific and logical evidence have a supremacy over emperical evidence?

Emperical evidence comes from observations and experience but not from theoretical proofs. Science heavily relies on both, yet empirical evidences are outnumbered in many fields such as mathematics, ...
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71 views

What does 1 John, 4:19. imply?

1 John 4:19 , "so you see, our love for Him comes as a result of His loving us first." Does the above Biblical Scripture imply through Modus Tollens what I think it does? That is, If God loved us ...
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62 views

The Unskilled Argument

Two people X and Y. What is the name of the argument that falls under X not being as "good" as Y, but X knows Y is doing something wrong in a subject. But Y's primary counter-argument says that X ...
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142 views

Why are some communication failures regarded as important opinions in philosophy?

As a newbie here (though not on SO or on the net before that) I am surprised at the number of questions about what some philosopher meant. Examples, just picked from the time point of writing this ...
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82 views

The fallacy of proving correctness by claiming opposing arguments as predictions under one's paradigm?

My religion foresees that you will deny the truth at first, but will eventually accept it. Correct me if I'm wrong, but there are two fallacies here: The argument above tries to subsume ...
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Suppose you know the premises of an argument are inconsistent. Do you have to do a truth table to know whether it is valid or invalid?

Suppose you know the premises of an argument are inconsistent. Do you have to do a truth table to know whether it is valid or invalid?
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Suppose the conclusion of an argument is known to be tautologous. Do you have to do a truth table to know whether it is valid or invalid?

Suppose the conclusion of an argument is known to be tautologous. Do you have to do a truth table to know whether it is valid or invalid?
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48 views

Suppose the conclusion of an argument is logically equivalent to the conjunction of all the argument’s premises

Suppose the conclusion of an argument is logically equivalent to the conjunction of all the argument’s premises (the conjunction of all the arguments premises is just the statement obtained by taking ...
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1answer
30 views

Is 'Almost everyone' both a guarding term and assuring term here? [closed]

Source: Lecture 2-5 (transcription), ... How to Reason and Argue, by Prof W Sinnott-Armstrong. The following is from a question that pops up during the video at the 5 min 28 seconds juncture. ...
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2answers
49 views

When writing, why would a conclusion precede a premise? [closed]

Source: Lecture 2-2 (transcription), ... How to Reason and Argue, by Prof W Sinnott-Armstrong. [At the 0 min 11 secs juncture:] The actual word order doesn't always tell us the order of ...
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4answers
58 views

Explanation vs Generalization

Source: Lecture 1-5 (transcription), ... How to Reason and Argue, by Prof W Sinnott-Armstrong [12 min 56 s juncture:] Explanation is, an attempt to fit a particular phenomenon into a general ...
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4answers
54 views

How to evaluate an argument based on the claim that “intent doesn't matter”?

My friends often get themselves into situations of the following form: Person A states a sentence. Person B reads and interprets A's sentence. B states that the sentence has conveyed a meaning which ...
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79 views

Is the logic precept that for two propositions there are four truth values ever applied to serious matters?

An elementary precept of logic says that where there are two propositions, P and Q, there are four possible "truth values", P&~Q, ~P&Q, P&Q, ~P&~Q, where ~ means "not."   Do people ...
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99 views

Why are French postmodern philosophers (like Baudrillard) so hard to read/understand?

I've read my fair share of philosophers. Now I won't say that proper philosophical texts are ever easy to understand, but it seems that French postmodern philosophers like Baudrillard are extremely ...
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1answer
57 views

What is the name given to a false comparison

Necessary background information I have recently started going back to the gym. Myself and my friend have both been suffering from muscle soreness. I decided to take a supplement known as creatine ...
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1answer
42 views

Is it possible to determine the soundness of the following argument?

I have over-analysed the following question and now find myself thoroughly confused. I think my issue lies with the use of the word 'some' which we are asked to assume means 'an indeterminate number ...
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45 views

Faulty analogy and/or guilt by association

Suppose someone would argue that there is no difference between an anti-abortion display and a Ku Klux Klan display, because it offends women in the same way that a Ku Klux Klan stand would offend ...
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2answers
156 views

Contradictory Conclusions - Both cannot be valid

Q: Consider the following two propositions: Oswald shot Kennedy; Oswald did not shoot Kennedy. Suppose that we have two pieces of reasoning, one with the first as conclusion and the other with the ...
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98 views

Is there an onus on the critic to povide an alternative solution?

In many situations, when someone criticises a procedure, or a policy, a common response is something like "yeah, we know it's crap, but you're not presenting an alternative solution, so shut up". ...
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121 views

Is it possible to argue that belief systems that are full of caveats about their own predictions tend to be false?

It seems to me that many religions, especially those with Abrahamic roots: Claim that God loves us. Claim that God is very powerful. Are laced with caveats that purport to explain why a very ...
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125 views

Why is the darapti syllogism invalid?

I found the following exposition of darapti on wikipedia: All squares are rectangles. (MaP) All squares are rhombuses. (MaS) ∴ Some rhombuses are rectangles. (SiP) As far as I can see, this is ...
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2answers
191 views

A supposedly new argument for the existence of God?

I am new to this SE so apologies if this question is improper. I have come across a supposedly new argument for the existence of God, I would be interested in hearing your opinions. (If my question ...
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3answers
88 views

Is this a fallacy: “You only X because you Y”

You only X because you Y. (with Y being true!) Example: Paul only defends the drug decriminalization because he has never been aggressed by a drug addict. Is this a fallacy? If not, how can we ...
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83 views

Counter argument to Nozick's counter to principle of fairness

Are there any strong counter arguments of Nozick's counter argument to principle of fairness. Nozick argues that although people may receive the benefits from the state, it does not mean the people ...
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6answers
850 views

Mathematical versus philosophical reasoning (and the mathematics of philosophical arguments)?

What is the difference between mathematical reasoning and philosophical reasoning and why isn't philosophy just considered to be a branch of mathematics? Is any study not a branch of mathematics ...
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211 views

Is it possible to appeal to emotion without commiting a fallacy?

People often make arguments from authority, and not all of them are fallacious. If the given authority is an expert on the discussed field, if there is a consensus among the experts of that field, and ...
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198 views

If all the premises of an argument are true, is the argument logically valid?

Where an argument is said to be logically valid "if and only if it is not possible for the premises to e true and the conclusion false". I know that the argument is indeed logically valid if all the ...
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2answers
121 views

Is it possible to make non-fallacious argument?

This is a list of fallacies: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_fallacies Looking at this list, I can't imagine any non-trivial, non-mathematical (i.e., not a mathematical proof) argument that ...
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4answers
142 views

An Argument for the Unity of Truth?

I was thinking about truth, and came up with an outline for an argument that there is only one truth. However, this is just an outline and it is flawed, so I'm hoping you can help me critique and fix ...
2
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2answers
71 views

Could 'ought' be defined as sentimentalism?

The traditional definition of ought is "moral obligation" as defined by multiple online dictionaries. Some authors, like Harris, have defined ought as maximizing expected well being (a fancy way of ...
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What's the term for winning an argument using the elegance of manipulation?

Arguments can be won by utilizing a mixture of ethos, pathos, and logos. Logos may either appeal using real logic (facts), or using deceptive logic (non-facts). What's the term for deceiving ...
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78 views

What is the fallacy? “I never lost in tennis against Roger Federer.”

Example I never lost in tennis against Roger Federer. It's a negation and 'true' but it's misleading. In fact I never played tennis against Federer. I'm looking for a name or a category for ...
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59 views

What are the ways one can use to demonstrate that it's possible for something to exist?

Notice that I'm not talking here about the actual existence of something, but the possibility of existence. About such ways, I only know one that is argumentative (which is the kind I would like to ...
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1answer
142 views

soundness: how can one decide\know if premise is true or false

So I happened to read this article on wikipedia about soundness and there is this example of sound argument: An argument is sound if and only if The argument is valid. All of its ...
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60 views

Is there a word for a fallacy made by a listener instead of a speaker?

I've been thinking about misunderstandings that occur when people have philosophical discussions. Often somebody can make an entirely cogent argument, but then the other person misunderstands what has ...
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678 views

What is it called when you disagree with a position on the basis that it doesn't fix everything?

Suppose someone tells you that they are a vegetarian and ride a bike to work because they want to reduce their negative impact on the environment. In response you tell them that this is futile (or ...
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80 views

What's the difference between being in a simultion vs base reality

Having articles like Bostrom's "Simulation argument" gives us the probability that we are almost certainly living inside a simulation. Putting aside the emotional, intuitive discomfort about it, what ...
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5answers
667 views

What does Dawkins suggest, is the main flaw in Aquinas's these three arguments?

1 The Unmoved Mover Nothing moves without a prior mover. This leads us to an infinite regress, from which the only escape is God. Something had to make the first move, and that something we ...
3
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4answers
455 views

Invalid arguments with true premises and true conclusion [duplicate]

I'm am study some classical logic and I am having trouble with argument validity. I learned to think of validity as determined by the definition "If the premises are true, then the conclusion must be ...
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Dawkins's rebuttal to Aquinas's “The Argument from Degree”?

Let’s move on down Aquinas’s list. 4. The Argument from Degree We notice that things in the world differ. There are degrees of, say, goodness or perfection. But we judge these ...
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Is this a logical fallacy?

I overheard a conversation that went something like this: A: You could buy that for me. B: I can't afford that. A: Are you going to let money get in the way of friendship? Specifically, I like the ...
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How to rebut in this format of written argument under 550 words? [duplicate]

1 Conclusion 2 Arguments in favour of your conclusion (same source for ¶4) 3 Arguments against your conclusion 4 Explanations as to why the arguments in ¶3 fail. (Call these rebuttals) + ...
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Is it effective, helpful, and safe to narrow a given topic? [closed]

I ask in the context of preparing to write an essay test, with a time limit of 35 mins and a word limit of 550 words, that requires the choice of one of three essay questions on a range of subjects ...