The construction, deconstruction and presentation of arguments for a position;

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To Check or not to Check? [on hold]

Samuel and Paul make a wager. They want to know if a certain professor held class the day prior when they were absent. The professor is unreachable, though, so they have to ask students from class. If ...
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45 views

What is the name of this fallacy: “You don't have an explanation for x but I do, so I'm correct and you are wrong”?

I hope this is the most correct stack exchange to ask this question. What is the name of the logical fallacy that follows: "You don't have an explanation for x but I do, so I'm correct and you are ...
2
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1answer
35 views

Problematic conditional argument: what is the logical form and is it valid?

I'm trying to reconstruct an argument. The argument is not about what should or shouldn't be done. As you can see the antecedent is never being picked up in the next premise. So it's just a sequence ...
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2answers
59 views

Critical Thinking Course - A Good Choice?

I'm about to retire, and I'm going back to school. I have the opportunity to take an introductory Critical Thinking course, and I think that it will be a little dry, but I'm wondering if it could ...
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1answer
37 views

Assistance in interpreting this excerpt concerning political philosophy

The article comes from "The Rhetorical Functions of Slogans: Classifications and Characteristics" by Robert E. Denton. The title should give away what the entire article is about. I've come to the ...
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4answers
147 views

Does this philosophical argument about accidents and universal origin contain valid logical structure?

I'm not enough of a philosopher to properly analyze this particular argument, but I'm curious about it and I'd like to see it dissected and explained. "If the solar system was brought about by an ...
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5answers
97 views

Is this a fallacy: no argument against X, therefore X?

Recently I was talking to a friend of mine, a vegan. Here's what she said: "I was talking to a vegan philosopher once, and he said that he is a vegan because there is no good argument against ...
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1answer
72 views

If “All S is P” is true, does it contradict “No non-S is non-P”?

I have a problem I encountered in a logic textbook that I cannot figure out after multiple tries. Say we assume that "All S is P" is true. Does this allow us to conclude the truth value of "No Non-S ...
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33 views

What to do when encountering a logical fallacy?

If I were in an argument, and my opponent was to use perhaps ad hominem and I caught it and pointed it out, what purpose does it serve? May I dismiss his/her argument or can I only acknowledge it as ...
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59 views

Repeatedly asking for definitions of common terms. Is this a fallacy?

Let's say that you provide the definition of a term to someone, and that person asks you to then define terms within that definition. When you do that, then this person asks you to keep defining other ...
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1answer
38 views

Law of Contrapositives?

The Law of Contrapositives states that if a conditional statement is true, then it's contrapositive will also be true. I can easily see this works through example conditional statements, but why does ...
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2answers
41 views

What is the name of the following fallacy?

"You are worried about what person Y is saying. Therefore, Y is saying the truth." Context: A person X argues that Y is wrong about his view (let's suppose that X used arguments to support his ...
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1answer
35 views

If one is coerced into believing something that is actually true, have they truly been deceived?

Here, coercion is taken to be the method of persuasion which encompasses all logical fallacies; lying, lying by omission, or embellishment; emotional and otherwise logically unsound arguments; and ...
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42 views

Argument Validity

The haze in Singapore causes problems for the capitalist economic system. The forest fires in Indonesia cause the haze in Singapore. The forest fires in Indonesia are caused by the greed inherent in ...
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91 views

How do I counter this argument (and truth-table help)?

I will pass the exam or I will not pass the exam. If I will pass the exam, then I will pass the exam even if I don't study. If I will pass the exam even if I don't study, then studying is ...
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3answers
141 views

Have any philosophers argued that ad hominems are sometimes valid?

As far as I can tell, the position that ad hominem attacks are always invalid seems to be widespread within the philosophical community. I'm not entirely convinced that this is a reasonable position, ...
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4answers
124 views

Who was the first to argue that consciousness exists?

I have seen the following argument in several places: Consciousness cannot be an illusion, and it surely exists. An illusion is perceiving something to be true when this something is not ...
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115 views

What fallacy dismisses a conclusion because supporters give invalid arguments for it?

A person dismisses an otherwise valid argument, because some of its proponents support it for the wrong reason. How is this fallacy called? EDIT: Here is an example. A person defends the idea that ...
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64 views

Can you teach something you don't know? [closed]

Is it possible to teach something you don't know?
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45 views

How do I counter this argument? [closed]

Essentially I was in an argument with a pro black/#BlackLivesMatter proponent, and they asserted that the USA is out to get black people, and that white's are constantly killing blacks. I countered ...
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3answers
58 views

How to address hard to verify claims?

Is it ok to dismiss claims like "If you research it, you will see that X is true" or "If you read this you will see that X is true" or "If you wanted to learn you would read this material and agree ...
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4answers
137 views

Is it legitimate to win a moral debate with logic?

Is it legitimate to win a moral, political or ethical argument by using logical methods? If you demonstrate that an opponent's statements are somehow illogical, the reason the opponent is ...
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2answers
70 views

What makes the “lazy arguments” (you have no chance, so don't bother) valid or invalid?

What I am thinking of is not exactly like the Lazy argument described in Wikipedia. I am thinking of a general argument where a normative conclusion towards inaction is drawn from the knowledge of the ...
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1answer
23 views

Is this argument, with roots in virtue ethics, valid?

According to virtue ethics, one should always strive to do as a "virtuous person" would do in the same situation. If a patient wishes to continue treatment, even though the doctor deems the ...
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1answer
32 views

Is it ethically correct for a physician to refuse a course of treatment demanded by the patient?

I'm writing about the medical ethical dilemma of whether or not to give life-sustaining therapy if it is judged to be futile by the doctor anyhow. I'm to write a logically valid argument FOR or ...
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164 views

Is the use of inconsistent definitions a logical fallacy?

I am not asking for a defense of or pro/con of the existence of an omnipotent (or multiple omni-x) being, or for the existence of square-circles or any other similar thing. These arguments are well ...
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1answer
32 views

What fallacy is “sports use it so it must be a good system”? [duplicate]

So basically the argument goes, "auto-promotion/relegation is an inherently flawed system because of x reasons." and the response is "well traditional sports have used it for decades thus it's ...
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60 views

Is “group X is responsible for the action (or inaction) of politician Y because they are the majority of voters” a fallacious argument?

I have read this very useful answer which suggests that the moral responsibility of an individual voter for the actions of a politician they voted for, is limited. However, the comments on that ...
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1answer
48 views

How to rate philosophy essays?

I might end up teaching philosophy in Finnish lukio/gymnasium. I will not get an opportunity to practice teaching it - I do get to practice teaching mathematics a fair deal, though. (The situation is ...
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26 views

INUS conditions for invalid arguments [closed]

Is it a necessary and sufficient condition that invalid arguments have a false conclusion?
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9answers
431 views

Why do people who subscribe to self-refuting philosophies still argue with others?

The belief that everything is relative is obviously self-refuting, because it holds to an absolute. However, in my experience, people who believe this (or some form of it) such as some Buddhists and ...
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5answers
1k views

Is there a flaw in Spinoza's argument about gender inequality?

Spinoza, the 17th century philosopher wrote in his Political Treatise (Chapter XI): "If by nature women were equal to men, and were equally distinguished by force of character and ability, in ...
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9answers
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Is it a fallacy to say that a sane person cannot apply rational thought to the motivations of the insane?

A common argument in today's news is that: Someone commits a heinous crime by shooting a bunch of people. Anyone who commits a heinous crime must be insane. Sane people cannot apply rational thought ...
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72 views

What kind of an argument is this? [closed]

A is probable because of B. B is probable because of C. C is true, therefore A is probable. What type of argument or inference is this?
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127 views

“That religion is not a race doesn't stop people who attack it from being racist!” Is this a logical fallacy?

Does this argument represent a logical fallacy? If so, which one? Jack: People who argue against [religion] are racist. Jill: But, [religion] is not a race! Jack: Well, that religion is ...
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1answer
47 views

explain valid or invalid [duplicate]

Suppose that the conclusion of a particular argument is ‘Grass is green and it is not the case that grass is green.’ Without knowing anything more about this argument – in particular, without knowing ...
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3answers
56 views

Defend against objection by showing opponent's position has same defect?

This has been bugging me...what is it called when you defend argument X by admitting that X has alleged problem P, but noting that competing arguments Y and Z also have P? For example, A asserts ...
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2answers
156 views

Is “only A are B” the same as “all B are A”?

I have two syllogisms which I think are pretty similar. Correct me if I am wrong but I believe "Only A are B" is the same as "All B are A". Only A are B (Can be rewritten as "All B are A") Only B are ...
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65 views

How do you argue without evidence?

Let's say you come to some sort of debate and you forgot to do your fact checking. What sorts methods could you use to argue a major point, e.g. gun control, without specific facts? I'm thinking ...
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39 views

Do justifiable arguments presuppose the explanations of their terms?

An explanation is simply that which allows for the object's intelligibility, which could in turn be claimed to be necessary in any justified argument about such an object(s). For example, the premise ...
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115 views

Unpacking an argument

Firstly, I'll admit that this is for a school assignment but is ridiculously abstract. I'm supposed to "unpack" the argument stated below, which is to identify the premises and conclusion of the ...
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3answers
66 views

Argumentation - Attacker becomes a Victim [closed]

First I am sorry if this is confusing, this is something I was thinking about as sometimes I encounter such arguments, and I was thinking if this is defined as some logical fallacy (name please). ...
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1answer
55 views

Particulars in a conditional syllogism

I have the following syllogism: Should all goods come from virtue, no evil man possesses the good. Some evil men possess the good. Therefore, some goods do not come from virtue. I ...
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1answer
70 views

How do we know our logic is correct? [duplicate]

How do we know the logic we use to logically infer is correct? What makes it correct? Why is "If X exists, then Y exists. X exists. Therefore Y exists." true?
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Is rejecting A not equivalent to accepting ~A?

A fundamental misconception that many laymen hold is that rejecting claim A is equivalent to accepting its inverse, namely ~A. How can we formally differentiate these claims, which I believe are all ...
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4answers
68 views

What are the classifications of arguments used for proselytizing?

Arguments that attempt to prostelytize seem to have common features that are relatively invariant across the particular religion to which they seek to prostelytize. What is the name for this basic ...
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1answer
52 views

Logic and Reasoning question [closed]

I just want to make sure I'm correct with these answers. Which of the following claims is correct? All valid arguments are sound. (False) Some valid arguments are sound. (False) All unsound ...
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4answers
146 views

How is logic utilized in constructing ethical arguments?

Forgive me if this sounds ignorant. Although I am an applied person, my experience in using logic in academia is through mathematical proofs, primarily in the real analysis. I have a friend who is a ...
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1answer
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The difference between argument, inference, deduction and proof?

I am trying to sort out the difference between argument, inference, deduction and proof. First, let's look at the distinction between argument and inference (if there is one). This online source ...
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37 views

Changing inconsistent to valid

I found the following passage in Mark Sainsbury's 'Logical Forms' If a collection of propositions is inconsistent, any argument whose premises consist of all but one of the collection, and whose ...