The construction, deconstruction and presentation of arguments for a position;

learn more… | top users | synonyms (1)

0
votes
2answers
46 views

Critical Thinking Course - A Good Choice?

I'm about to retire, and I'm going back to school. I have the opportunity to take an introductory Critical Thinking course, and I think that it will be a little dry, but I'm wondering if it could ...
1
vote
0answers
17 views

Assistance in interpreting this excerpt concerning political philosophy

The article comes from "The Rhetorical Functions of Slogans: Classifications and Characteristics" by Robert E. Denton. The title should give away what the entire article is about. I've come to the ...
4
votes
4answers
127 views

Does this philosophical argument about accidents and universal origin contain valid logical structure?

I'm not enough of a philosopher to properly analyze this particular argument, but I'm curious about it and I'd like to see it dissected and explained. "If the solar system was brought about by an ...
5
votes
5answers
95 views

Is this a fallacy: no argument against X, therefore X?

Recently I was talking to a friend of mine, a vegan. Here's what she said: "I was talking to a vegan philosopher once, and he said that he is a vegan because there is no good argument against ...
2
votes
1answer
67 views

If “All S is P” is true, does it contradict “No non-S is non-P”?

I have a problem I encountered in a logic textbook that I cannot figure out after multiple tries. Say we assume that "All S is P" is true. Does this allow us to conclude the truth value of "No Non-S ...
1
vote
0answers
32 views

What to do when encountering a logical fallacy?

If I were in an argument, and my opponent was to use perhaps ad hominem and I caught it and pointed it out, what purpose does it serve? May I dismiss his/her argument or can I only acknowledge it as ...
0
votes
0answers
57 views

Repeatedly asking for definitions of common terms. Is this a fallacy?

Let's say that you provide the definition of a term to someone, and that person asks you to then define terms within that definition. When you do that, then this person asks you to keep defining other ...
1
vote
1answer
38 views

Law of Contrapositives?

The Law of Contrapositives states that if a conditional statement is true, then it's contrapositive will also be true. I can easily see this works through example conditional statements, but why does ...
0
votes
2answers
39 views

What is the name of the following fallacy?

"You are worried about what person Y is saying. Therefore, Y is saying the truth." Context: A person X argues that Y is wrong about his view (let's suppose that X used arguments to support his ...
0
votes
1answer
35 views

If one is coerced into believing something that is actually true, have they truly been deceived?

Here, coercion is taken to be the method of persuasion which encompasses all logical fallacies; lying, lying by omission, or embellishment; emotional and otherwise logically unsound arguments; and ...
3
votes
3answers
41 views

Argument Validity

The haze in Singapore causes problems for the capitalist economic system. The forest fires in Indonesia cause the haze in Singapore. The forest fires in Indonesia are caused by the greed inherent in ...
4
votes
3answers
86 views

How do I counter this argument (and truth-table help)?

I will pass the exam or I will not pass the exam. If I will pass the exam, then I will pass the exam even if I don't study. If I will pass the exam even if I don't study, then studying is ...
7
votes
3answers
135 views

Have any philosophers argued that ad hominems are sometimes valid?

As far as I can tell, the position that ad hominem attacks are always invalid seems to be widespread within the philosophical community. I'm not entirely convinced that this is a reasonable position, ...
4
votes
4answers
120 views

Who was the first to argue that consciousness exists?

I have seen the following argument in several places: Consciousness cannot be an illusion, and it surely exists. An illusion is perceiving something to be true when this something is not ...
-1
votes
2answers
61 views

Can you teach something you don't know? [closed]

Is it possible to teach something you don't know?
-2
votes
2answers
43 views

How do I counter this argument? [closed]

Essentially I was in an argument with a pro black/#BlackLivesMatter proponent, and they asserted that the USA is out to get black people, and that white's are constantly killing blacks. I countered ...
3
votes
3answers
58 views

How to address hard to verify claims?

Is it ok to dismiss claims like "If you research it, you will see that X is true" or "If you read this you will see that X is true" or "If you wanted to learn you would read this material and agree ...
1
vote
4answers
134 views

Is it legitimate to win a moral debate with logic?

Is it legitimate to win a moral, political or ethical argument by using logical methods? If you demonstrate that an opponent's statements are somehow illogical, the reason the opponent is ...
2
votes
2answers
67 views

What makes the “lazy arguments” (you have no chance, so don't bother) valid or invalid?

What I am thinking of is not exactly like the Lazy argument described in Wikipedia. I am thinking of a general argument where a normative conclusion towards inaction is drawn from the knowledge of the ...
0
votes
1answer
23 views

Is this argument, with roots in virtue ethics, valid?

According to virtue ethics, one should always strive to do as a "virtuous person" would do in the same situation. If a patient wishes to continue treatment, even though the doctor deems the ...
0
votes
1answer
32 views

Is it ethically correct for a physician to refuse a course of treatment demanded by the patient?

I'm writing about the medical ethical dilemma of whether or not to give life-sustaining therapy if it is judged to be futile by the doctor anyhow. I'm to write a logically valid argument FOR or ...
1
vote
1answer
32 views

What fallacy is “sports use it so it must be a good system”? [duplicate]

So basically the argument goes, "auto-promotion/relegation is an inherently flawed system because of x reasons." and the response is "well traditional sports have used it for decades thus it's ...
6
votes
1answer
60 views

Is “group X is responsible for the action (or inaction) of politician Y because they are the majority of voters” a fallacious argument?

I have read this very useful answer which suggests that the moral responsibility of an individual voter for the actions of a politician they voted for, is limited. However, the comments on that ...
1
vote
1answer
48 views

How to rate philosophy essays?

I might end up teaching philosophy in Finnish lukio/gymnasium. I will not get an opportunity to practice teaching it - I do get to practice teaching mathematics a fair deal, though. (The situation is ...
1
vote
2answers
24 views

INUS conditions for invalid arguments [closed]

Is it a necessary and sufficient condition that invalid arguments have a false conclusion?
14
votes
5answers
1k views

Is there a flaw in Spinoza's argument about gender inequality?

Spinoza, the 17th century philosopher wrote in his Political Treatise (Chapter XI): "If by nature women were equal to men, and were equally distinguished by force of character and ability, in ...
0
votes
2answers
72 views

What kind of an argument is this? [closed]

A is probable because of B. B is probable because of C. C is true, therefore A is probable. What type of argument or inference is this?
1
vote
2answers
123 views

“That religion is not a race doesn't stop people who attack it from being racist!” Is this a logical fallacy?

Does this argument represent a logical fallacy? If so, which one? Jack: People who argue against [religion] are racist. Jill: But, [religion] is not a race! Jack: Well, that religion is ...
1
vote
1answer
47 views

explain valid or invalid [duplicate]

Suppose that the conclusion of a particular argument is ‘Grass is green and it is not the case that grass is green.’ Without knowing anything more about this argument – in particular, without knowing ...
2
votes
3answers
54 views

Defend against objection by showing opponent's position has same defect?

This has been bugging me...what is it called when you defend argument X by admitting that X has alleged problem P, but noting that competing arguments Y and Z also have P? For example, A asserts ...
2
votes
2answers
114 views

Is “only A are B” the same as “all B are A”?

I have two syllogisms which I think are pretty similar. Correct me if I am wrong but I believe "Only A are B" is the same as "All B are A". Only A are B (Can be rewritten as "All B are A") Only B are ...
1
vote
2answers
62 views

How do you argue without evidence?

Let's say you come to some sort of debate and you forgot to do your fact checking. What sorts methods could you use to argue a major point, e.g. gun control, without specific facts? I'm thinking ...
0
votes
2answers
39 views

Do justifiable arguments presuppose the explanations of their terms?

An explanation is simply that which allows for the object's intelligibility, which could in turn be claimed to be necessary in any justified argument about such an object(s). For example, the premise ...
4
votes
2answers
114 views

Unpacking an argument

Firstly, I'll admit that this is for a school assignment but is ridiculously abstract. I'm supposed to "unpack" the argument stated below, which is to identify the premises and conclusion of the ...
-2
votes
3answers
65 views

Argumentation - Attacker becomes a Victim [closed]

First I am sorry if this is confusing, this is something I was thinking about as sometimes I encounter such arguments, and I was thinking if this is defined as some logical fallacy (name please). ...
1
vote
1answer
53 views

Particulars in a conditional syllogism

I have the following syllogism: Should all goods come from virtue, no evil man possesses the good. Some evil men possess the good. Therefore, some goods do not come from virtue. I ...
1
vote
1answer
65 views

How do we know our logic is correct? [duplicate]

How do we know the logic we use to logically infer is correct? What makes it correct? Why is "If X exists, then Y exists. X exists. Therefore Y exists." true?
10
votes
4answers
1k views

Is rejecting A not equivalent to accepting ~A?

A fundamental misconception that many laymen hold is that rejecting claim A is equivalent to accepting its inverse, namely ~A. How can we formally differentiate these claims, which I believe are all ...
3
votes
4answers
67 views

What are the classifications of arguments used for proselytizing?

Arguments that attempt to prostelytize seem to have common features that are relatively invariant across the particular religion to which they seek to prostelytize. What is the name for this basic ...
0
votes
1answer
48 views

Logic and Reasoning question [closed]

I just want to make sure I'm correct with these answers. Which of the following claims is correct? All valid arguments are sound. (False) Some valid arguments are sound. (False) All unsound ...
3
votes
4answers
143 views

How is logic utilized in constructing ethical arguments?

Forgive me if this sounds ignorant. Although I am an applied person, my experience in using logic in academia is through mathematical proofs, primarily in the real analysis. I have a friend who is a ...
4
votes
1answer
947 views

The difference between argument, inference, deduction and proof?

I am trying to sort out the difference between argument, inference, deduction and proof. First, let's look at the distinction between argument and inference (if there is one). This online source ...
2
votes
1answer
37 views

Changing inconsistent to valid

I found the following passage in Mark Sainsbury's 'Logical Forms' If a collection of propositions is inconsistent, any argument whose premises consist of all but one of the collection, and whose ...
4
votes
4answers
230 views

“I have X in my blood” arguments

Lately, I have been hearing the argument "Oh, well I have Indian(Native American) in my blood, and 'redskin' does not offend me so why change the name?" coming from people who claim their ...
2
votes
0answers
83 views

Any video course on Logic & Logical fallacies?

After discovering this site and spending some time going through questions, I'm amazed by the answers and comments on Is 'guns don't kill people people kill people' a good argument?. Even though I'm ...
2
votes
7answers
133 views

Relative vs Absolute scale: Where does this argument fail?

If this can be formulated more rigidly, it might belong on Math instead, but for now I think this is the best place for it. The context of this is in scaling things. Lets say there exists a target ...
11
votes
6answers
803 views

What practical methods can be used to prove a negative claim?

I realize that the burden of proof falls squarely on the shoulders of the person making the claim, but they often seem unwilling to do the footwork. It is difficult to prove a negative case except by ...
1
vote
1answer
51 views

For arguments, besides validity and soundness, what of Potential Convincingness?

Source: 2 minutes 30 seconds juncture; Lecture 2, Video 4 (transcription); MITx: 24.00x Introduction to Philosophy; by MIT Associate Prof Caspar Hare PhD (Princeton) So good, interesting arguments ...
1
vote
4answers
221 views

The problem with infinite regression in the argument about “why we should go vegan”

Animal rights groups are always trying to pursue others to go vegan. One argument goes like this: Animals want to live, and they have the right to live, thus we should not harm animals as that ...
1
vote
2answers
100 views

Does scientific and logical evidence have a supremacy over emperical evidence?

Emperical evidence comes from observations and experience but not from theoretical proofs. Science heavily relies on both, yet empirical evidences are outnumbered in many fields such as mathematics, ...