The construction, deconstruction and presentation of arguments for a position;

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Is it legitimate to win a moral debate with logic?

Is it legitimate to win a moral, political or ethical argument by using logical methods? If you demonstrate that an opponent's statements are somehow illogical, the reason the opponent is ...
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2answers
47 views

What makes lazy arguments “valid” or “invalid”?

What I am thinking of is not exactly like the Lazy argument described in Wikipedia. I am thinking of a general argument where a normative conclusion towards inaction is drawn from the knowledge of the ...
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1answer
20 views

Is this argument, with roots in virtue ethics, valid?

According to virtue ethics, one should always strive to do as a "virtuous person" would do in the same situation. If a patient wishes to continue treatment, even though the doctor deems the ...
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1answer
30 views

Is it ethically correct for a physician to refuse a course of treatment demanded by the patient?

I'm writing about the medical ethical dilemma of whether or not to give life-sustaining therapy if it is judged to be futile by the doctor anyhow. I'm to write a logically valid argument FOR or ...
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1answer
30 views

What fallacy is “sports use it so it must be a good system”? [duplicate]

So basically the argument goes, "auto-promotion/relegation is an inherently flawed system because of x reasons." and the response is "well traditional sports have used it for decades thus it's ...
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1answer
53 views

Is “group X is responsible for the action (or inaction) of politician Y because they are the majority of voters” a fallacious argument?

I have read this very useful answer which suggests that the moral responsibility of an individual voter for the actions of a politician they voted for, is limited. However, the comments on that ...
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1answer
42 views

How to rate philosophy essays?

I might end up teaching philosophy in Finnish lukio/gymnasium. I will not get an opportunity to practice teaching it - I do get to practice teaching mathematics a fair deal, though. (The situation is ...
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2answers
22 views

INUS conditions for invalid arguments [closed]

Is it a necessary and sufficient condition that invalid arguments have a false conclusion?
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Is there a flaw in Spinoza's argument about gender inequality?

Spinoza, the 17th century philosopher wrote in his Political Treatise (Chapter XI): "If by nature women were equal to men, and were equally distinguished by force of character and ability, in ...
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72 views

What kind of an argument is this? [closed]

A is probable because of B. B is probable because of C. C is true, therefore A is probable. What type of argument or inference is this?
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1answer
62 views

Does this argument represent a logical fallacy?

Does this argument represent a logical fallacy? If so, which one? Jack: People who argue against [religion] are racist. Jill: But, [religion] is not a race! Jack: Well, that doesn't stop ...
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1answer
45 views

explain valid or invalid [duplicate]

Suppose that the conclusion of a particular argument is ‘Grass is green and it is not the case that grass is green.’ Without knowing anything more about this argument – in particular, without knowing ...
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3answers
47 views

Defend against objection by showing opponent's position has same defect?

This has been bugging me...what is it called when you defend argument X by admitting that X has alleged problem P, but noting that competing arguments Y and Z also have P? For example, A asserts ...
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Is “only A are B” the same as “all B are A”?

I have two syllogisms which I think are pretty similar. Correct me if I am wrong but I believe "Only A are B" is the same as "All B are A". Only A are B (Can be rewritten as "All B are A") Only B are ...
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2answers
57 views

How do you argue without evidence?

Let's say you come to some sort of debate and you forgot to do your fact checking. What sorts methods could you use to argue a major point, e.g. gun control, without specific facts? I'm thinking ...
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2answers
39 views

Do justifiable arguments presuppose the explanations of their terms?

An explanation is simply that which allows for the object's intelligibility, which could in turn be claimed to be necessary in any justified argument about such an object(s). For example, the premise ...
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2answers
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Unpacking an argument

Firstly, I'll admit that this is for a school assignment but is ridiculously abstract. I'm supposed to "unpack" the argument stated below, which is to identify the premises and conclusion of the ...
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3answers
63 views

Argumentation - Attacker becomes a Victim [closed]

First I am sorry if this is confusing, this is something I was thinking about as sometimes I encounter such arguments, and I was thinking if this is defined as some logical fallacy (name please). ...
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1answer
40 views

Particulars in a conditional syllogism

I have the following syllogism: Should all goods come from virtue, no evil man possesses the good. Some evil men possess the good. Therefore, some goods do not come from virtue. I understand that ...
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1answer
55 views

How do we know our logic is correct? [duplicate]

How do we know the logic we use to logically infer is correct? What makes it correct? Why is "If X exists, then Y exists. X exists. Therefore Y exists." true?
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Is rejecting A not equivalent to accepting ~A?

A fundamental misconception that many laymen hold is that rejecting claim A is equivalent to accepting its inverse, namely ~A. How can we formally differentiate these claims, which I believe are all ...
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4answers
66 views

What are the classifications of arguments used for proselytizing?

Arguments that attempt to prostelytize seem to have common features that are relatively invariant across the particular religion to which they seek to prostelytize. What is the name for this basic ...
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1answer
42 views

Logic and Reasoning question [closed]

I just want to make sure I'm correct with these answers. Which of the following claims is correct? All valid arguments are sound. (False) Some valid arguments are sound. (False) All unsound ...
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4answers
121 views

How is logic utilized in constructing ethical arguments?

Forgive me if this sounds ignorant. Although I am an applied person, my experience in using logic in academia is through mathematical proofs, primarily in the real analysis. I have a friend who is a ...
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1answer
530 views

The difference between argument, inference, deduction and proof?

I am trying to sort out the difference between argument, inference, deduction and proof. First, let's look at the distinction between argument and inference (if there is one). This online source ...
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1answer
36 views

Changing inconsistent to valid

I found the following passage in Mark Sainsbury's 'Logical Forms' If a collection of propositions is inconsistent, any argument whose premises consist of all but one of the collection, and whose ...
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“I have X in my blood” arguments

Lately, I have been hearing the argument "Oh, well I have Indian(Native American) in my blood, and 'redskin' does not offend me so why change the name?" coming from people who claim their ...
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Any video course on Logic & Logical fallacies?

After discovering this site and spending some time going through questions, I'm amazed by the answers and comments on Is 'guns don't kill people people kill people' a good argument?. Even though I'm ...
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7answers
126 views

Relative vs Absolute scale: Where does this argument fail?

If this can be formulated more rigidly, it might belong on Math instead, but for now I think this is the best place for it. The context of this is in scaling things. Lets say there exists a target ...
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6answers
767 views

What practical methods can be used to prove a negative claim?

I realize that the burden of proof falls squarely on the shoulders of the person making the claim, but they often seem unwilling to do the footwork. It is difficult to prove a negative case except by ...
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1answer
47 views

For arguments, besides validity and soundness, what of Potential Convincingness?

Source: 2 minutes 30 seconds juncture; Lecture 2, Video 4 (transcription); MITx: 24.00x Introduction to Philosophy; by MIT Associate Prof Caspar Hare PhD (Princeton) So good, interesting arguments ...
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4answers
215 views

The problem with infinite regression in the argument about “why we should go vegan”

Animal rights groups are always trying to pursue others to go vegan. One argument goes like this: Animals want to live, and they have the right to live, thus we should not harm animals as that ...
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2answers
87 views

Does scientific and logical evidence have a supremacy over emperical evidence?

Emperical evidence comes from observations and experience but not from theoretical proofs. Science heavily relies on both, yet empirical evidences are outnumbered in many fields such as mathematics, ...
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2answers
87 views

What does 1 John, 4:19. imply?

1 John 4:19 , "so you see, our love for Him comes as a result of His loving us first." Does the above Biblical Scripture imply through Modus Tollens what I think it does? That is, If God loved us ...
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The Unskilled Argument

Two people X and Y. What is the name of the argument that falls under X not being as "good" as Y, but X knows Y is doing something wrong in a subject. But Y's primary counter-argument says that X ...
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160 views

Why are some communication failures regarded as important opinions in philosophy?

As a newbie here (though not on SO or on the net before that) I am surprised at the number of questions about what some philosopher meant. Examples, just picked from the time point of writing this ...
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3answers
86 views

The fallacy of proving correctness by claiming opposing arguments as predictions under one's paradigm?

My religion foresees that you will deny the truth at first, but will eventually accept it. Correct me if I'm wrong, but there are two fallacies here: The argument above tries to subsume ...
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2answers
200 views

Suppose you know the premises of an argument are inconsistent. Do you have to do a truth table to know whether it is valid or invalid?

Suppose you know the premises of an argument are inconsistent. Do you have to do a truth table to know whether it is valid or invalid?
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1answer
60 views

Suppose the conclusion of an argument is known to be tautologous. Do you have to do a truth table to know whether it is valid or invalid?

Suppose the conclusion of an argument is known to be tautologous. Do you have to do a truth table to know whether it is valid or invalid?
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1answer
86 views

Suppose the conclusion of an argument is logically equivalent to the conjunction of all the argument’s premises

Suppose the conclusion of an argument is logically equivalent to the conjunction of all the argument’s premises (the conjunction of all the arguments premises is just the statement obtained by taking ...
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1answer
79 views

Is 'Almost everyone' both a guarding term and assuring term here? [closed]

Source: Lecture 2-5 (transcription), ... How to Reason and Argue, by Prof W Sinnott-Armstrong. The following is from a question that pops up during the video at the 5 min 28 seconds juncture. ...
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2answers
60 views

When writing, why would a conclusion precede a premise? [closed]

Source: Lecture 2-2 (transcription), ... How to Reason and Argue, by Prof W Sinnott-Armstrong. [At the 0 min 11 secs juncture:] The actual word order doesn't always tell us the order of ...
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4answers
75 views

How is Explanation not Generalization?

Source: 12 min 56 s juncture, Lecture 1-5 (transcription), ... How to Reason and Argue, by Prof W Sinnott-Armstrong [1.] Explanation is, an attempt to fit a particular phenomenon into a general ...
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4answers
69 views

How to evaluate an argument based on the claim that “intent doesn't matter”?

My friends often get themselves into situations of the following form: Person A states a sentence. Person B reads and interprets A's sentence. B states that the sentence has conveyed a meaning which ...
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2answers
81 views

Is the logic precept that for two propositions there are four truth values ever applied to serious matters?

An elementary precept of logic says that where there are two propositions, P and Q, there are four possible "truth values", P&~Q, ~P&Q, P&Q, ~P&~Q, where ~ means "not."   Do people ...
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0answers
131 views

Why are French postmodern philosophers (like Baudrillard) so hard to read/understand?

I've read my fair share of philosophers. Now I won't say that proper philosophical texts are ever easy to understand, but it seems that French postmodern philosophers like Baudrillard are extremely ...
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1answer
63 views

What is the name given to a false comparison

Necessary background information I have recently started going back to the gym. Myself and my friend have both been suffering from muscle soreness. I decided to take a supplement known as creatine ...
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1answer
44 views

Is it possible to determine the soundness of the following argument?

I have over-analysed the following question and now find myself thoroughly confused. I think my issue lies with the use of the word 'some' which we are asked to assume means 'an indeterminate number ...
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3answers
60 views

Faulty analogy and/or guilt by association [closed]

Suppose someone would argue that there is no difference between an anti-abortion display and a Ku Klux Klan display, because it offends women in the same way that a Ku Klux Klan stand would offend ...
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185 views

Contradictory Conclusions - Both cannot be valid

Q: Consider the following two propositions: Oswald shot Kennedy; Oswald did not shoot Kennedy. Suppose that we have two pieces of reasoning, one with the first as conclusion and the other with the ...