Bertrand Russell (1872–1970) was a British philosopher and logician who is regarded as one of the founders of analytic philosophy and modern logic.

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What responses have made to Kripke's criticism of the descriptivist theory of meaning?

Under the influence of Kripke's acute analysis, there has been a growing trend of modern essentialism, or in other words, the assertion that there are 'essential' descriptors (rigid designators) that ...
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which problem Russell is focusing on while providing a solution, in his introduction to the Tractatus?

In the final part of his introduction to the Tractatus Logico-philosophicus, Russell provides a possible solution to the problem of the impossibility of self-reference of logic: There is one ...
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can a vague sentence be considered meaningful in the Tractatus?

In the Tractatus, Wittgenstein draws a demarcation among meaningful sentences (1), the meaningless propositions of logic (2: sinnlos sätze) and nonsensical propositions (3: unsinnig sätze). 1) ...
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How Russell and Ramsey misunderstood Wittgenstein with regard to the problem of the perfection of language?

In the Tractatus Logico- Philosophicus there is a tension between the aim of achieving a language perfectly ordered, with regard to natural language, and the evidence that the latter is not really ...
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Which is the difference between Sache and Sachverhalt in the Tractatus?

As far as I know, When Russell asked to Wittgenstein to tell him the difference between Sache and Sachverhalt, Wittgenstein answered that "Sachverhalt" is what corresponds to an elementar sätze (an ...
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Where can I find a correlation to Russell's epistemology in the Tractatus?

According to the Structure of the Tractatus, there is: 1) the ontology at the beginning; 2) "a discussion to what Russell calls epistemology, but it is actually the foundation of possible knowledge ...
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In which sense Wittgenstein criticizes Schopenhauer's WILL?

In the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, the section 6.53 may be treated as "a criticism of Schopenhauer's Will". As far as I understood there is also another concept involved: the russellian idea that ...
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Russel's paradox compared to Aristotle's logic

How can we easily explain what Russel might mean about Aristotle's logic? Did I understand correctly that, loosely speaking, if we have a statement in Aristotle's logic for example: No human being ...
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What does Bertrand Russell mean by saying Christianity nowadays requires us to use a vaguer meaning?

What does Bertrand Russell mean when he said that: Nowadays it is not quite that. We have to be a little more vague in our meaning of Christianity. For better understanding, can you cite any ...
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What does Russell mean by “term” in Principles of Mathematics?

Bertrand Russell in Principles of Mathematics defines a term as "Whatever may be an object of thought, or may occur in any true or false proposition or can be counted as one." Can someone elaborate on ...
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What justifies Russell's Law of Identity?

The Law of Identity by Bertrand Russell says Whatever is, is. It's hard to find any kind of justification on this statement. Why should this be true and what are the arguments for any opposite ...
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Why does Russell prohibit judgments based on knowledge by description?

I'm new to philosophy and have picked up Bertrand Russell's 'The Problems of Philosophy'. I have a question relating to the end of the chapter on 'Acquaintance and Description'. Russell states that we ...
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What is the “intended project” in Appendix B of Principia Mathematica?

In Linsky's The Evolution of Principia Mathematica it is written, Chapter 6 studies in detail the content of Appendix B, On induction. The appendix consists of a technical proof that even ...
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Logical Atomism's long term effect on modern culture?

Wittgenstein and Russell both moved away from Logical Atomism, and it is generally considered to have failed as a theory of how language connects to truth. However, as an IT person, when I first ...
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What is the difference between implicit and explicit definitions?

B.Russell holds that certain classes of expressions are to be defined contextually, like definite descriptions or incomplete symbols in general, and some others are to be defined explicitly. What is ...
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What sources discuss Russell's response to Gödel's incompleteness theorems?

In his book My Philosophical Development Russell writes, In my introduction to the Tractatus, I suggested that, although in any given language there are things which that language cannot ...
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Logic, Russell, joke [closed]

There is a Russell impression with a joke on youtube, in which Russell puts the following questions to G. E. Moore: Do you have any apples in that basket? Do you have some apples in that basket? Do ...
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Russell´s view (substitutional semantics) [closed]

I wondered what was the so-called Russell´s substitutional theory?
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Utilitarianism and Bertrand Russell

On an interview aired in 1959 Bertrand Russel, talking about religious beliefs said: "...it seems to me a fundamental dishonesty to hold a belief because is useful and not because is true." The open ...
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Did Bertrand Russell ever call his work in logic a failure?

In Logicomix page 272, the fictional Russell said "...despite the failure of my own work in logic..." As far as I know, Russell never threw in the towel. Gödel's sentence is nonsense (neither ...
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What does Russell's speculated law of causality look like in mathematical language?

My complaint is that Russell said non-mathematical language was inaccurate, but he went on to use non-mathematical language regardless. I'd appreciate it if someone can can translate his law of ...
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Why is Russell so critical of Aristotle?

In A History of Western Philosophy, Russell argues: I conclude that the Aristotelian doctrines with which we have been concerned in this chapter are wholly false, with the exception of the ...
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Meaning: 'A hallucination is a fact, not an error' and the text around?

Source: On the Nature of Acquaintance: Neutral Monism (1914), by Bertrand Russell Maybe the following quote exemplifies difficult writing that besets me. If so, my angst only worsens; if I'm ...
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Can anyone explain the very beginning of The Analysis of Matter to me?

Can anyone explain the very beginning of The Analysis of Matter to me? What exactly is it that he is saying is an aesthetic choice with respect to physics? I just opened up the book and can't get ...
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Understanding Bertrand Russel on agnosticism and atheism as self-descriptions

I came across this very interesting quote, but it is giving me some confusion. Since Russel was a philosopher I thought it was best to come to the Philosophy stack exchange. And this is by no means a ...
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Universal quantifier in Russell's Theory of descriptions - Who is the UNIVERSE?

In Russell's 1905 paper "on denoting" in which he introduces his theory of descriptions, he uses his method of analyzing propositions that include denoting phrases (descriptive ones), by rewriting ...
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About Anselm's Ontological Argument and Bertrand Russell

Did Bertrand Russell read and analyse Anselm's Ontological Argument and if so did he have anything positive to say about it?
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How inaccurate is Bertrand Russell's History of Western Philosophy?

I finished reading A History of Western Philosophy by Bertrand Russell a while ago. Not being an expert by any stretch I thought it was very good (informative, accessible, enjoyable etc..). But I have ...
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On the Axiom of Infinity

Russell, in Principia Mathematica, says the following of his Axiom of Infinity: "The axiom of infinity will be true in some possible worlds and false in others" He is notoriously sheepish about ...
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Tractatus 3.333 and Russell's paradox

Can anyone explain to a non-logician how Tractatus 3.333 refutes (or fails to refute) Russell's Paradox? Please explain his use of symbols!
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Recommendations for reading in Russell's Mathematical Philosophy

I am looking for any suggestions for research-level survey articles that expose Russell's type theory (in the context of his philosophy of mathematics). Of particular interest are: Russell's reasons ...
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Defenses of Descartes's rationality in regards to “cogito” fallacy?

What philosophers and in what writings, if any, have attempted to explain or defend Descartes's rationalism in respect to the "cogito ergo sum" fallacy pointed out by philosophers like Russell, and ...
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Responses to the bricklayer critique of Dewey's definition of Inquiry

Apparently, Russell and Dewey had a very provocative debate in the philosophical literature of their time. Unfortunately I am only familiar with Russell's side of the debate, and want to learn more ...
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Question regarding proof of ❋3.47 in Principia Mathematica by Whitehead and Russell

❋3.03 in the the last step seems unnecessary. Can someone explain to me why 3.03 is listed? The last step can be written out in full like this: ⊦: p .⊃. q ⊃ r ...
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Question regarding the proof 3.3 in the Principia Mathematica

As far as I can understand, the key of PM is to make sure there are no leaps and gaps when making inferences. In other words, all the premises and rules of inferences should be explicitly enumerated ...
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How might one counter this criticism of Stoicism by Bertrand Russell?

Reading about Stoicism, I have encountered a criticism to which I cannot form a strong counter-argument. Did anyone or can anyone provide a rebuttal to the following argument against Stoicism? ...
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Where did Bertrand Russell describe the circumstances which keep the impulse alive?

In Bertrand Russell's Proposed Roads to Freedom, he wrote: All the most important work springs from an uncalculating impulse, and is best promoted, not by rewards after the event, but by ...
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Why are set theory and numbers important to philosophy?

I'm reading David Papineau's Philosophical Devices, and there's a section on numbers and set theory. But there's not deeper hint on why it's important to philosophy. I guess that in mathematics we ...
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What did Russell intend to achieve with “The Impact of Science on Society”?

I have been reading Russell's "The Impact of Science on Society" and I found it to be a very strange book. This book has become like a Bible to some conspiracy theorists, and I can see why. However, I ...
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Why did Thales say the water is the originating principle, according to Russell?

If I remember Russells Short History of Western Philosophy correctly, Russell unequivocally maintains that Thales was the first philosopher of note. He said: The world is made of water Russell ...
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Does Wittgensteins own solution to Russells Paradox actually work?

In the Tractatus, Wittgenstein attempts a solution of Russells paradox 3.333 A function cannot be its own argument, because the functional sign already contains the prototype of its own argument ...
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Russell's Paradox & Existence of God

Russell's paradox is a famous theorem in set theory. It asserts that "the collection of all sets is not a set itself". In the other words "the set of all sets doesn't exist" in the world which ZFC ...
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What were some of Russell's arguments against Kant's system of thought?

I just finished reading Bertrand Russell's 'A History of Western Philosophy', and while I thoroughly enjoyed the book and find Russell's own work quite interesting, his overview of Kant seemed a bit ...
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The use of propositions and propositional functions by Russell in Logical Atomism

I recently had a chance to go through a book by Bertrand Russell : - "The philosophy of logical atomism" . I guess Russell abandoned some of this philosophy later on his life but nevertheless I had ...
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What does the type theory in the Principia Mathematica and that of contemporary logic have in common?

The SEP entry on second order or higher logic in passing say that countable order logic is type theory. My impression that this is the type theory of the Principia (I may be wrong here). There is ...
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Does Cogito ergo sum need to be more specific?

Something about my translation has bothered me since I originally posted my question (which follows below). It concerns what Bertrand Russell wrote in "On Denoting". Ryno indicated a circularity with ...
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Did Russell understand Gödel's incompleteness theorems?

Russell was active in philosophy (although no longer in math) for many years after the Gödel's 1931 publication. Gödel's paper were not obscure, and Russell would have been aware of their effect on ...
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What caused the turns from monism to dualism in Russell and Chalmers?

Why did Chalmers shift from idealism to dualism? And Russell from materialism to neutral monism? Edit: The particulars of Russell is recounted in A.C. Grayling's 'Russell: A Very Short Introduction' ...
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What are some good books about the history of philosophy in the 20th century?

I just read "The History of Western Philosophy" and liked it very much. I would like to now read a history that covers the span after Russell wrote the book, from 1940-present. Can anyone recommend a ...