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3
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2answers
162 views

Does gravity cause things to fall?

I always thought that science is something we model out of the real world. That is basically observe a few things and come up with a model to explain the observations and predict more. In this ...
3
votes
2answers
49 views

Is conception an Aristotelian efficient, or material cause?

Someone asks you the question, "Why are you?" You reply My parents conceived me. Am I correct in saying that your conception, according to Aristotle, is the efficient cause of your ...
2
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1answer
39 views

Does Epictetus State “Only One Cause Motivates Us”, Or “One Cause More than Others”?

1. Question: From Epictetus, Discourses, 1.11, (Perseus English Link): Is Epictetus implying there is only ever just one cause for our actions? Or, is Epictetus arguing there is one cause which ...
0
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1answer
25 views

What is the difference between correlation and sufficient causation? [duplicate]

I have been told that X is a sufficient cause of Y if every time X happens, Y happens, too. However, isn't it the same as 'correlation'? For instance, if I say that global temperature is correlated ...
0
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0answers
29 views

What are some alternatives to Mill's induction methods?

I have been taught that Mill's methods for identification of causes (agreement, difference, etc.) only apply when we can define our universe of possible causes very strictly (i.e., when we know all ...
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0answers
17 views

Why did Spinoza believe that God's infinitity, but not God's perfect, implies causal necessity?

Source: p 121, Philosophy: A Complete Introduction (2012) by Prof Sharon Kaye (MA PhD (Philosophy), U. Toronto) 6. For Spinoza, causal necessity is implied by which of the following? a) God's ...
1
vote
1answer
52 views

Why would David Hume judge 'bread nourishes' as a Matter of Fact, and not a Relation of Idea?

Source: p 115, Philosophy: A Complete Introduction (2012) by Prof Sharon Kaye (MA PhD in Philosophy, U. Toronto). Caution: I rewrote numerals as integers for easier reading. 1 Relations of ideas ...
1
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2answers
41 views

Apparent causation in a strictly causally determined world

Imagine an automata universe (an example of a universe in which all causation is defined as an operation on the current state of the object of change defined by a set of immutable rules/axioms, which ...
3
votes
3answers
117 views

Why did the chicken cross the road?

I understand more or less why To get to the other side. can be considered to be a valid answer to the question: Why did the chicken cross the road? I don't understand why Aristotle's final ...
3
votes
3answers
112 views

What is the difference between correlation and causation?

What is the difference between correlation and causation? Pirates and Global Temperature Example For example, how do we know when we're dealing with correlation only and not also causation here? ...
4
votes
3answers
65 views

How does the removal of an impeding cause generate an effect?

How does Aristotle or a medieval scholastic commentator like St. Thomas Aquinas explain how one cause can impede the action of another cause? Or, conversely, how does the removal of an impeding cause ...
4
votes
2answers
76 views

What does “the fact that P causes Q” mean?

I'm reading the paper "A Causal theory of knowing" written by Goldman. In the paper, he present the following as conditions of knowledge(S knows P): 1) it is the case that P 2) S believes that P ...
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0answers
47 views

Is this proper counter-example to Causal theory of knowledge?

Causal theory of knowledge says: S knows P iff (1) It is the case that P (2) S believes P (3) there is appropriate causal connection between the fact that P and S's belief of P. I construct a ...
4
votes
1answer
80 views

If the Humean analysis of causality is correct, why don't we observe causeless events more often?

The Humean analysis of causation would hold that there is no actual relation between two events (being 'cause' and 'effect'), and that any sense of 'causal powers' can be reduced to talk about the ...
2
votes
2answers
126 views

How far does Nietzsche's skepticism of causality go?

On page 21 of Nietzsche's Beyond Good and Evil, I found the following quote: Suppose someone sees through the boorish naivete of this famous concept of "free will" and manages to get it out of his ...
4
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5answers
304 views

How do modern dualists explain the mind-body interaction?

A serious challenge for dualism is explaining how mind and body interact if they are made of ontologically different substances, and more specifically how mental phenomena can casually drive bodily ...
5
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2answers
173 views

Kant's distinction of freedom as transcendental idea and as practical concept: What is the benefit?

Prompted by the current discussion about Kant’s concept of causality of freedom Can Free Will Exist In A Causal Material World? I would like to understand the scope and the difference of the two ...
0
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3answers
130 views

How does the Humean analysis of causation account for the following objections?

The Humean analysis of causation reads as follows: "We may define a cause to be an object, followed by another, and where all the objects similar to the first, are followed by objects similar to ...
2
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3answers
307 views

Is the delayed choice quantum eraser a refutation of principle of causality? How does contemporary philosophy make sense of it?

Causality, as per Wiki Is the relation between an event (the cause) and a second event (the effect), where the first event is understood to be responsible for the second. For this ...
3
votes
2answers
115 views

Hume's definition of cause and effect

I read on Wikipedia that Hume remarks that we may define the relation of cause and effect such that ``where, if the first object had not been, the second never had existed." I do not understand ...
3
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2answers
150 views

What's the difference (if any) between demonstration and description?

How do philosophers of various schools* explain the difference (if any) between demonstration and mere description? Are they synonymous, or are they different? How so? My first impressions: To ...
1
vote
3answers
119 views

Is the phrase “Dying is the #1 cause of death in the world” logically sound? [closed]

I just came across it and though it seems like an obvious statement I feel like the rapport of cause doesn't apply here. Dying IS death and not a cause of it. Right?
4
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0answers
116 views

A Neo-Kantian View on Causality?

Quantum non-determinism seems incompatible with Kant’s defense of causality in his Second Analogy. Stephen R. Palmquist however provides an interesting and appealing case against this supposition, ...
0
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2answers
88 views

If something can happen, it does? Proof wrong! [closed]

Playing with the idea of a Theory of everything, I thought "If something can happen, it does.". This does not explain the origin of our world and it's not a TOE but a concept in that direction. ...
2
votes
3answers
81 views

Is believing in uncaused events akin to believing in magic?

Is believing in uncaused events akin to believing in magic? If you imagine a stage in a field. What would it mean for a 1971 Ford Mustang to appear on this stage? Could some sort of casual agent ...
2
votes
3answers
149 views

How do laws of nature enforce themselves?

The Humean view prevailing today is that laws of nature are mere regularities of the empirical events. However, there seems to be a difference between post factum regularities, like the Titius-Bode ...
1
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4answers
142 views

Aquinas' Third Way: Why Argue For Only One Necessary Entity?

I came across this description of Aquinas' third way: Third, he argues that if there were no eternal, necessary, and immortal being, if everything had a possibility of not being, of ceasing to be, ...
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3answers
387 views

Why must objects be moved by other objects in Aquinas' First Way argument for God?

In his famous Summa Theologica, the Scholastic theologian Thomas Aquinas presents Five Ways to demonstrate the existence of God. Here is Aquinas' First Way, the argument from motion: The first ...
3
votes
4answers
89 views

Does the lack of absurdities in our universe call into question the validity of multiverse theories?

Does the lack of absurdities in our universe call into question the validity of multi verse theories? If the theories about multi verse are to be true and we have explained the immensely improbable ...
1
vote
2answers
69 views

Is a cyclical model of time and the universe logically valid, and which philosophers (if any) have proposed such a model?

If we accept the following premises: 1: An event (such as a Big Bang) happened. (I use the phrase Big Bang, because many are familiar with that as the "Initial Cause", but this theory would ...
4
votes
1answer
94 views

What are some good philosophical resources on nonlocality?

Bernard d'Espagnat offers a good treatment of nonlocality as it pertains to physics, in his 2006 On Physics and Philosophy. What I'm interested is whether nonlocality has been observed and discussed ...
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votes
6answers
526 views

Is there any exception to the law of “Cause and Effect”?

I've heard that 'God' is the only exception to the law of Cause and Effect which means that He is not dependent in His existence on anything. Can it be philosophically true? If we accepted this ...
1
vote
5answers
237 views

Can there be cause and effect without time?

Our usual understanding of cause and effect operates tensely; that is in time. But consider a basic statement in some generic computer language: if x then y Is this in time? Well an actually ...
1
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2answers
102 views

Is an infinite regress good logic?

I have come across claims that first causes are not needed we can always have an infinite regress. Is this good logic is what I'm wondering. If the universe has an beginning should we believe that ...
4
votes
7answers
462 views

Can logic be without time?

I think logic is dependent on time. My reasoning is that all the base logic concepts are based on axioms that are observations in time (so basic that do not require proof). Which then leads to ...
4
votes
2answers
3k views

Hume and Kant on causality: do their views really differ?

David Hume If one event always follows another we believe the first causes the second. But it is impossible to prove, empirically or logically, that the second event happened because the first ...
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1answer
58 views

What is a good article on Hume's view on causality?

Could anyone please let me know of a good review article that gives and overview of Hume's view on causality?
2
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1answer
67 views

If a being creates a given concept, can this concept be used to describe the being or prove something about it?

Given an abstract definition of a being "A" and a concept "B". Can a being "A" be defined or described in terms of a concept "B", if it was "A" who gave rise to "B" ? In other words, can "B" be used ...
2
votes
1answer
96 views

Can we have a present point in time in a reality based only on natural causes?

Physicists like Lawrence Krauss have explained that it is possible for particles, and even a universe such as ours, to arise spontaneously due to the very nature of the nothingness of empty space. ...
7
votes
1answer
109 views

Temporally stable determination of value in consequentialism

If one is a consequentialist, one at least implicitly makes decisions based on how good or bad the consequences are. As such, you must implicitly have a function f that maps from the set of ...
6
votes
3answers
152 views

How can one in principle distinguish causality from observed regularity?

Hume showed that one cannot infer cause & effect in nature by induction alone. We only notice that when event A occurs then so does event B. If event A always occurs before event B we are still ...
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4answers
5k views

Is infinite regress of causation possible? Is infinite regress of causation necessary?

For a number of reasons — including perhaps a desire to feel that we have a complete understanding of where we came from, or at least an understanding which is completely sufficient for all of ...
1
vote
3answers
1k views

Can there be an infinite chain of causes/effects? [duplicate]

One of Aristotle's premises for proving that God exists is that there cannot be an infinite chain of causes and effects, hence there must be one cause which had no previous cause (i.e. God). Does ...
8
votes
1answer
1k views

What did Wittgenstein mean by saying that the belief in the causal nexus is a superstition?

In the Tractatus-Logicus Wittenstein says: 5.1361 The events of the future cannot be inferred from those of the present. Superstition is the belief in the causal nexus. I'm not quite ...
10
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1answer
161 views

Is there any literature on the relationship between responsibility and probability?

If A causes B and I am doing A (willingly, knowingly, ...), then I can be held responsible for B. But what if probabilities are involved? Thought experiment: If you roll a 1 on a die you win. You ...
7
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5answers
488 views

Can anything truly be simultaneous?

I was looking at a discussion about simultaneous causation and something that came up was that all physical processes take time. So nothing can truly be simultaneous. And yet, we have philosophers ...
2
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2answers
888 views

What is Causality? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: What does “to cause” mean? Take an example, It is reported that short-circuit caused fire in city bakery. In this case short-circuit and fire was in a causality, short-...
7
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4answers
435 views

Are the experiences of the “flow of time” and of “cause and effect” qualia?

Physics and biology has no answer about why or how we personally experience the color red and we say that the experience of the color red is a quale. Physics also has no answer about why or how we ...
10
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6answers
721 views

What does “to cause” mean?

What does it mean, strictly, for one event to "cause" another? If I throw a ball, does the movement of my arm cause the ball to move, or are they simply correlated events? If you say the arm caused ...
3
votes
4answers
233 views

Is cause & effect part of an individuals theory of the mind?

One of the arguments marshalled against traditional cultures invocation of spirits is that they're simply projecting their own fears onto the world. That they're anthropomorsing the world. It is ...