Epistemology is the study of knowledge, acquisition thereof, and the justification of belief in a given claim.

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Are language, context and truth connected?

I have been thinking about the following problem for years and can't seem to resolve it. I'm looking for more information on the subject and would really appreciate some further reading on the ...
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Unity of Apperception vs. Self Consciousness in Critique of Pure Reason

What is the difference between Unity of Apperception and Self- consciousness? From what I gather so far, Unity of Apperception is a particular part of Self-Consciousness in that UoA brings to ...
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If you can always ask “How do you know that”, how can you know anything?

For any statement, you can always ask "how do you know?". Even if you give an answer, how do you know that answer is true? Let me give an example. Take the statement 'I think, therefore I am'. How do ...
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How is Descartes Sure of Things When He is “Attending” to Them?

On SparkNotes, Rene Descartes apparently knows some things to be true as long as he is "attending" to them. These clear and distinct perceptions are only indubitable so long as he is attending to ...
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What are some example of properly basic beliefs being incorrigible and how can incorrigible beliefs be justified?

I was reading that properly basic beliefs are beliefs that are either self-evidently true, evident to the senses or incorrigible. The general example given for incorrigible beliefs is "beliefs I ...
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How do we know we believe things?

This is my first philosophy question, so please bear with me. Wikipedia says belief is Belief is the state of mind in which a person thinks something to be the case, with or without there being ...
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Hypothesis and thesis

Hypothesis means several things, but I think (and Wikipedia roughly agrees) that there are two main senses: A. Epistemological - a tentative affirmation, posed as explanation for a phenomenon. In the ...
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After everything dies and nothing exists, is the universe back to where it started? [closed]

Self explanatory. After everything is dead and nonexistent, is the universe in the same state that it started from?
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76 views

A critique of the epistemoloical models of religion

I'm interested to find any existing critique of the epistemological models by which religions (especially the various branches of Christianity) determine their theological conclusions. What I ...
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What *objective* criteria can be used to judge philosophical refutations?

What objective criteria can be used to judge philosophical refutations? Say for example that someone is writing a criticism of Karl Popper. What are ways to reject the criticism without getting into ...
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58 views

Can kantian categories only be applicated to objects given by the senses?

The question is inspired by the comments of this answer by @PédeLeão and I think it deserves a question of its own to have room for clarifying this. Possible candidates Kant, in German, has pretty (...
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Epistemology of derealization

I'm wondering if anyone has analyzed derealization from an epistemological perspective. If one person perceives the world as real and another perceives it as unreal, are we justified in viewing the ...
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Can more than 2 things be in direct opposition?

What I mean by this, is something which is exactly opposite to say both positive and negative, just as much as the two are in opposition to each other. This idea arose and evolved when I was thinking ...
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Can anything be truer than true?

The Wikipedia page of Philosophy of Science says, "This discipline overlaps with metaphysics, ontology, and epistemology, for example, when it explores the relationship between science and truth such ...
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Does Quine consider the Homeric gods to have predictive power?

Quine wrote in his 1951 paper "Two Dogmas of Empiricism": "Physical objects are conceptually imported into the situation as convenient intermediaries not by definition in terms of experience, ...
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Hypothetically observable

Question: When is it appropriate to assign the property "hypothetically observable" to a thing? The set up is that someone is discussing an object that they claim has some sort of existence. Maybe ...
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49 views

What are factual propositions?

I've been reading up on epistemology, after having studied a bit of logic. Given that, I am in a good (or at least better) position to understand a proposition, and it's properties. One such property ...
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58 views

To Check or not to Check? [closed]

Samuel and Paul make a wager. They want to know if a certain professor held class the day prior when they were absent. The professor is unreachable, though, so they have to ask students from class. If ...
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131 views

How to prove that what we will know isn't true isn't true?

My apologies for the convoluted question. I'm still (kinda) arguing with someone that if we have knowledge then there are facts. One way I've argued for this, is by saying that what we will know isn'...
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24 views

Where can I go to find one-on-one verbal Philosophical discussion?

I don't know if method questions are as allowable as content questions, but I am seeking conversational partners to riff on and analyze ideas with as I wend through philosophical inquiries. Because I ...
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108 views

Have any philosophers applied the concept of “underdetermination” to non-scientific contexts?

Most resources I've found on underdetermination approach the subject within the context of science. That's definitely a fascinating area of study, but I'd like to explore ways of applying ...
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Did Gettier's paper have an impact outside epistemology?

Edmund Gettier's paper refuting the Justified True Belief (JTB) account of knowledge has been described as 'landmark' and 'legendary'. I more or less understand how it proved, using counterexamples, ...
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61 views

Philosophy of beauty / Science

I have been thinking about the idea of science and its rightful activity conveying beauty. I got this idea from a quote from Richard P. Feynman which I attach it in the end of my question for ...
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Why is this argument against solipsism and skepticism bad, unless reality can be defined as what we can observe?

Source: pp 15-16, What Does It All Mean? A Very Short Introduction to Philosophy (1987) by Prof. Thomas Nagel. Sorry for the long quote; please advise me if and how I can shorten it.   There is ...
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What happens when something becomes familiar to us?

Lately I've been pre-ocuppied with this question, which frankly makes me look at my surroundings in a fresh way. (I am mainly concerned with objects at the moment, but I think there can be a lot of ...
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What did Thomas Nagel intend to distinguish, in distinguishing 'impression' vs 'perception of reality'?

Source: pp 15-16, What Does It All Mean? A Very Short Introduction to Philosophy (1987) by Prof. Thomas Nagel  According to this view, the idea of a dream from which you can never wake up is not ...
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Is it possible to adopt the interpretivism philosophy of science when conducting a deductive study?

The philosophy of interpretivism is often associated with inductive studies. Is it considered too huge of a mismatch to adopt this philosophy for a qualitative deductive study? If so, what are the ...
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What's the current status of the “paradox of analysis”? And are there any strong and widely accepted resolutions?

It would seem that figuring out a solution to the paradox of analysis would be of prime importance to philosophers, especially considering the fact that conceptual analysis seems central to ...
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Are all self-evident truths necessarily redundant?

Every justificationist theory of knowledge has axioms and premises that it begins with. This fact has led skeptics to criticize the possibility of knowledge by noting the infinite regress within any ...
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Is Feyerabend confusing discovery and justification when he criticizes the scientific method?

I am reading Feyerabend's "Against Method", where he uses Copernicus's (and Galileo's confirmation) discovery of the fact that the Earth orbits around the Sun and other examples to show that ...
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How should one properly characterize mathematical conclusions?

I am a mathematics graduate student, not a philosophy student, so please bear with me. However, I am interested in investigating what exactly it is that I spend the majority of my week doing! As ...
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Is this a legitimate solution to the brain in a vat problem?

The problem: "Since the brain in a vat gives and receives exactly the same impulses as it would if it were in a skull, and since these are its only way of interacting with its environment, then it is ...
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Are Nontransitive Dice a problem for probability interpretations?

A set of dice is nontransitive if the binary relation – X rolls a higher number than Y more than half the time – on its elements is not transitive. Different sets of such dice are known. 'Rolling ...
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In what fundamental ways, if any, does Husserl break with Kant?

I've read only slim secondary works on Husserl some time ago, and recently started "The Crisis in the European Sciences." So far, the framework seems faithfully Kantian. Husserl, for example, ...
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Question of Identity

Conversing with someone trying to convince me that 2 and 1+1 are not the same thing. His argument was that although 1+1 = 2, they are in fact different because the notation is different. We see "1+1" ...
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If it's impossible to separate science from metaphysics, is it is also impossible to separate science from ethics and values?

One of the most important results in philosophy of science is that every observation is "theory-laden", i.e. that the outcome of any scientific experiment is affected by the theoretical ...
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What is the difference between everyday realism and metaphysical realism?

At an everyday level, we seem to subscribe to a from of strong realism which doesn't leave any room for skepticism. We are certain that individuals who hear voices in their heads or who have ...
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How does a realist account for causation between universals and particulars?

With respect to universals nominalists maintain that there are no universals and only particulars exists. Conversely, realists says that there are universals. Here is a sketch of an argument against ...
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142 views

How do psychoanalysts interpret the epistemological concept of “proof”?

How do psychoanalysts interpret the epistemological concept of "proof"? Not necessarily of psychoanalysis.
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Is the claim that atheism is the null hypothesis invalid because it applies a physical measurement to the metaphysical?

I've heard several people state that: Atheism is the null hypothesis. ie that this null hypothesis can be falsified: if one piece of evidence is found to contradict it, the existence is considered ...
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Did Kant consider Newtonian mechanics a priori?

Did Kant take Newtonian physics as being synthetic a priori? I get the feeling he did. If he did, how did he justify this, it seems like a huge blunder for such a careful thinker. I mean... Kant ...
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How does Locke's realism differ from Kant's realism?

I've been studying Locke recently and I'm having trouble understanding how his epistemic position differs from Kant's, and by implication, why did Kant see his epistemology as being so revolutionary ...
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Does running a program about quantum mechanics on a quantum computer count as an experiment or a simulation?

When it comes to the simulation vs. experiment debate, some proponents of simulations argue they have equal epistemic value because computer simulations are physical processes happening inside a ...
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How would you know if nonobservable entities exist?

Nonphysical entities cannot be observed. Therefore such entities cannot be verified by observation. How could statements like "God exists" be even considered true? Why would anyone appeal to the ...
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Does truth not require belief?

The good thing about science is that it's true whether or not you believe in it.--Neil Degrasse Tyson Such scientific medievalism runs rampant today and speaks to the propaganda of vacuous ...
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Can reason defend itself without resort to reason?

I recently read, "Reason can't defend itself without resort to reason." Is this universally true?
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Can one be a reductionist without being a materialist?

I always assumed that reductionism was an inherently materialist/physicalist point of view: If one believed that everything can be reduced to the fundamental laws of physics, then by implication, they ...
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Can the correspondence theory of truth really be completely avoided?

Let us assume that 'truth' is a construct of the human mind. In this case truth is defined as some product of the mind's 'verification', and nothing else. What 'makes' a statement true is simply the ...
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What kind of philosophical questions are transcendental philosophical questions?

There are a lot of different philosophical questions and I'm interested in knowing what kind of questions are asked in or what kind of questions does transcendental philosophy try to answer. I've ...