Epistemology is the study of knowledge, acquisition thereof, and the justification of belief in a given claim.

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Doesn't slavery still exist? [closed]

In history slavery did exist in physical form. In those days common men were forced to serve the higher class because of lack of knowledge, wisdom and education; and in return what they got was a ...
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Exhaustive studies of states of conscious and how we know what we know?

Have been hunting for a while: Is there a sort of compendium of epistemology out there? Not a who's who in epistemology per se, rather more a what's what that spans all schools of thought, cultures, ...
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Are we born critically synthesising concepts?

Following this question asking about whether we are born 'critically thinking'; which suggested this question asking whether we are born with Kants categories. Expanding further on the original ...
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Are we born with Kantian Categories?

Following this question; given that Kantian Categories are required to sythesise Concepts and for the conditions of experience; does this mean that we are born with them?
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If the Platonic world exists how would we know?

If we assume existence of a non-material world of ideas that mathematics describes there are some questions that a Platonist has to address. 1) How is the ideal world related to the real one, where ...
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Can we prove reality?

I heard someone make an assertion that 'We cannot really prove that there is reality.'. 'Reality' here would mean the universe and everything in it. You could look at an apple and think its an apple ...
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Are there any notable philosophical skeptics since Nietzsche, perhaps in the style of Nietzsche?

I'm a bit taken by Nietzsche's philosophical skepticism, which is skeptical even of scientific knowledge. I've come to believe that the more rigorous you are in your thinking, the more skeptical you ...
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A trivial response to Gettier problems

What problems arise in responding to Gettier problems with an assertion "the formal definition of knowledge, as justified true belief, does not need to exactly correspond to intuitive notions of ...
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Why distrust our senses?

It seems self-evident that the phenomena we sense are accurate and correlate to the real world. What sorts of philosophical arguments might cast doubt on this conviction in the veridicality of ...
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Does Descartes' cogito require awareness of thinking?

Descartes cogito is 'I think therefore I am'. Can an ant do the same? Breaking this down, one has 'I think' and I am aware that 'I am thinking' and therefore 'I am'. One requires here it seems some ...
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What are the axioms for quantified modal logic?

The plainest vanilla variety of propositional modal logic introduces two operators <> which is possibility, and [] which is neccessity. The axioms are: ◊p iff ¬□¬p □p iff ¬◊¬p What is ...
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Are memes philosophically coherent?

Dawkins introduced the term meme as the corresponding cultural analogy to that of gene in biology. But is it specious? How does meme differ from belief, idea or notion? A gene is defined ...
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What if any inherent obstructions are there to scientific understanding? [closed]

A friend described the methodology of science as follows: Observe some aspect of the universe. Invent a tentative description, called a hypothesis, that is consistent with what you have ...
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Propositional knowledge vs. Procedural knowledge vs Knowledge by acquaintance

I am looking for a reference which explains the differences between these conceptions of knowledge (and potentially others). Ideally, I prefer an academic paper authored by a respected scholar.
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What is an epistemic norm?

What is the definition of an epistemic norm? In what ways does it differ from a consistency norm or a rationality norm? Specifically, are epistemic norms a superset of rationality norms? EDIT: ...
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Is it possible to be truly unbiased?

I was pondering this question: Inductive Argument Against Believing Anything I his argument, the OP suggests that, in the position of choosing a system of belief where there are multiple, large ...
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Why should we believe other people, or scientists?

Looking for sourced answers or article references for this question, please. Why should someone believe another person's assertions? I would imagine that the answer is because most of the times when ...
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Why should I believe my own conclusions?

Consider the metaphysical question of whether God exists (just as an example). There are, and have been throughout history, billions of atheists, billions of Christians, and billions of people with ...
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Could a philosophical zombie conclude “cogito ergo sum”?

Could a philosophical zombie conclude "cogito ergo sum"? Assume a philosophical zombie which is a hypothetical being that is indistinguishable from a normal human being except in that it lacks ...
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Why Bad Things (Habits/Pessimism) prevails automatically,But Good Things(Optimism) wont be adhered even if induced? [closed]

Good Habits are not adhered to our routines even if practised where as Bad Habits are too much attractive implicitly without any effort. Why? Here, Please dont simply Divide Good & Bad Habits are ...
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How to reconcile authority and knowledge?

We all know that appeals to authority do not make for good arguments. At the same time, it seems that in daily life, people act as if they have actual knowledge and not belief. I was listening to a ...
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Roko's Basilisk as Descartes' evil genius?

I'll try to pose a shortened version of Roko's Basilisk below and then ask about how it relates to Descartes' evil genius: The idea is that down the line may it be decades or centuries from ...
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What are the implications of Baudrillard's ideas to epistemology?

I would simply like to know what you guys think... what points does his social theory, including his concept of hyperreality, intersect with theory of knowledge?
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Is our Philosophy, the Human Philosophy, the only possible Philosophy which can exist?

What I'm asking is if is there any possibility for a Non-human Philosophy, that is, a Philosophy founded on questions which we can't even conceive. Is possible a Philosophy of questions which only can ...
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Since any human language describes objects, does it therefore contain some knowledge of the Nature and laws of its development? [closed]

This question complements the question: Do higher level comprehensive Laws, which govern the phenomena of Nature, exist? One philosophical debate in epistemology and ontology is whether knowledge ...
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Is there any logical connection between Plato's theory of forms and the savant syndrome?

First of all i would like to state my understanding of 'Plato's theory of forms' (very short version; excuse my poor english): The platonic ideas are much more than mere representations in the human ...
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How can intuitions be infallible?

I happen to come across the theory that intuitions are infallible, therefore whatever we intuit must be true. How is this rational at all? Our intuitions do not come from experience, so we really can ...
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regarding the authority of past philosophy writers [closed]

If some madman who hates philosophy found a way to destroy all works of philosophy where-ever they exist in print or electronically stored so the only 'rememberences' of such work are 'with' a few ...
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Could there ever be evidence for an infinite being?

The God of Anselm is understood as "that than which nothing greater can be conceived." From this definition, God can be presumed to be omnipotent, omniscient, omnipresent, perfectly free, uncaused, ...
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Can a non-falsifiable belief ever be justified (besides for tautologies)?

Probably thanks to Popper, a scientific theory would never be taken seriously if it wasn't as least in some way falsifiable. Without getting into the nitty-gritty of the many theories of ...
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Epistemic justification - 'turtles all the way down'?

There's an age old problem (though I'm not sure of it's age exactly) regarding epistemic justification: how can I be justified in anything that I know to be true, even a principle as basic as modus ...
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Can we have objective knowledge? [closed]

Is agentive activity included in every representation (intension)? If so the extension of every representation includes some information about the interactivity between the representing agent and the ...
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Should ever one ought to believe a proposition that he *knows* to be false?

Has this question ever been discussed in the philosophical literature? An example that comes to mind is a proposition like "I am the best chess player in the world" during a chess match. Arguably, ...
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Explain Hilary Putnam's argument against Cartesian skepticism

Hilary Putnam, in "Reason, Truth And History", attempts to argue against Cartesian (or hyperbolic) doubt, by proving that a 'brain in a vat' cannot actually think that it is a brain in a vat. Part ...
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Are there *a priori* truths for a self-learning artificial intelligence system?

Assume a group of scientists builds a self learning artificial intelligence (AI) system, consisting of the following components: Some input data channels and sensors, allowing the system to learn ...
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Do we only believe statements when we think of them?

Do we only believe statements like "2+2=4" when we think of them? That is what I believe(at least at this moment!). I am not saying we believe it is false, either, but most of the time we are just not ...
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Does Cartesian Doubt Depend on Cartesian Dualism?

Even though this isn't exactly accurate, the way I like to think of Descartes' hyperbolic doubt as stating that there's no way to prove that information gained through sensory experience is accurate. ...
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How well does the Direct Reference Theory (DRT) work for evidence reports?

The dominant theory of reference, to my knowledge, is still the Direct Reference Theory (DRT). According to DRT, we can always replace a proper name referring to some object x, with another proper ...
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Justify Occam's Razor

I'm aware of a few justifications for Occam's (or Ockham) Razor, as it's usually understood that extra factors/complexities should not be added unnecessarily. The only truly compelling justification I ...
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What are atheism and agnosticism? [closed]

(Apologies for the crazy length question) Whenever the thorny issue of theism vs. atheism comes up -- especially on the internet -- a further issue always seems to arise concerning what these ...
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Isn't Nietzsche's Übermensch idea self-contradictory?

Doesn't Nietzsche's Übermensch contradicts itself in that understanding everything would enable propagation of that understanding? Wouldn't Nietzsche's Übermensch eventually fully understand how the ...
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How should we understand the oracle's dilemma in making a prediction?

Let's look at a thought experiment: There is an oracle who has exact knowledge of the state of a deterministic universe, so her predictions about the universe's future have always turned out to be ...
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Shouldn't fallibilism be a reason to abandon science?

The Wikipedia page on Fallibilism (currently) makes the intriguing claim that "Fallibilism is related to Pyrrhonistic Skepticism, in that Pyrrhonists of history are sometimes referred to as ...
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Could the Pyrrhonians be wrong?

The Pyrrhonians believed that "ataraxia" can be obtained by suspending judgement upon anything non-evident. They also noted the senses are faulty and the intellect too obscure, to understand and ...
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Conditions for Deduction

Hume posited a well known critique of causality that goes back to al-Ghazali - that there is no neccesary connection between a cause and an effect. The same argument it seems can be targeted to ...
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Are there any other things like 'Cogito ergo sum' that we can be certain of?

Are there any other things we can be certain of? Are there any 'hooks' that can be hooked into 'I think therefore I am', that one could be 100% certain are truthful as 'I think therefore I am' ...
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Explanation of the KK principle

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/KK_thesis If it's true, then do I already know that it's true? And, if I know that I know something, then do I know it? I'm not sure I know what knowing that I know ...
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What is consider fake in the subject of philosophy? [closed]

What is consider fake in the subject of philosophy? In another word, what is pseudo-philosophy? There is meaning of life, meaning of justice and meaning in money in philosophy, what is the definition ...
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Actual infinite vs. Potential infinite [closed]

I'm looking for bibliography about the problem of Actual infinite vs. Potential infinite. I would appreciate information about papers or books treating this problem deeply, philosophical and ...
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Epistemology and logic

Browsing on the Internet, it seems to me that knowledge (viz. the ability to know that) is invariably linked to propositional modal logic. Why is that? Could we not say, for instance, that knowledge ...