Epistemology is the study of knowledge, acquisition thereof, and the justification of belief in a given claim.

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Who said that “knowledge is difference”?

I have heard that knowledge is discerning differences or to that effect. For example, if all things are the same such that there is no differentiating qualities, we can't really speak of anything ...
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Can We Know of The Existence of Something Without Sensations?

I am currently reading An Introduction To Philosophy by George Stuart Fullerton. In the opening chapters of the book, he makes some very interesting statements, giving you plenty to mull over. ...
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Does studying philosophy help finding answers to questions in life?

In an attempt to find answers for almost life-long critical questions specifically concerning epistemology and logic, I'm currently considering getting a degree in philosophy. For y'all who have ...
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Need recommendation for a beginner-friendly philosophy forum

As you may or may not have seen, a metaphysics problem has long been plaguing me, and while I asked that question on this site, the ensuing answers really demanded a longer form of back and forth for ...
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Beginner question: what is metaphysics?

As I understand it, it is common knowledge that the three main branches of philosophy are Epistemology, Metaphysics, and Axiology, and that most or all of philosophy can be put into one of those three ...
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Why is Hesperus necessarily Phosphorus?

"Hesperus (the evening star) is Phosphorus (the morning star)" is one of Kripke's examples of necessary aposteriori, statements that are true necessarily if true at all, even if their truth can only ...
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Call for references on objections to the axioms of modal logic

Looking for good/classical references on objections/criticism of modal logic. I am a bit familiar with the work of Quine, but find his objections around the paradoxes of material implication, or the ...
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Why does Hume raise the Missing Shade of Blue?

From reading this question on Hume, having read the first seven sections of the Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (which covers the relevant section), a further question hit me. Hume dismisses ...
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Absolute Truth - Is there existence?

I restate the question in a simpler and more specific way; is there a proof or has a philosopher proved, that things can be absolute and observed by each in the same way? Are there like conserved ...
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Is there a reputable copy of Kants anthropology online?

I've looked through Google, but haven't found one; is it seen as a minor and unimportant work as one generally doesn't hear of it given the prominence of his three critiques.
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Mathematical intuitionism, possibly

Mathematical intuitionism asserts as a vital principle that it's not enough to assert that something exists, it must be constructed - that is shown. What does this mean for the truth value for a ...
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Can colour be considered as an aspatial and atemporal universal?

In physics, mass is a universal; one unit of mass is the same yesterday as it is today; as it is here or orbiting Betelgeuse; and if we accept the atomistic thesis then this result follows from the ...
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Does the possibility for other types of consciousness exist?

You hopefully have subjective consciousness like me. Its existence seems to be some kind of result from biological processes. So, if biology can do that, can other phenomena also occur naturally, ...
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Can science claim to explain all experience?

If so, how strong a claim? To expand the question: if there is a god that can be experienced, does that experience escape science? And a third question: can humans define something, or work with ...
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What practical methods can be used to prove a negative claim?

I realize that the burden of proof falls squarely on the shoulders of the person making the claim, but they often seem unwilling to do the footwork. It is difficult to prove a negative case except by ...
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134 views

Meaning is in the brain, where else?

Philosophy of languages discusses the two concepts of extension and intension. Since the 1960ies Putnam published a series of papers on topics like the meaning of meaning. He argues against the view ...
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Can you tell me, PLAINLY, what is the difference between truth and fact? [duplicate]

So...I've been looking for this answer and have answered for myself very simply...I just want to see if others can give a better answer...but I cannot give you my answer because that would be ...
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60 views

Are all subjective impressions qualia?

In other words, is it possible to claim that sentiments, emotions, and experiences influence people to have different subjective impressions of a picture without affirming the existence of qualia?
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An argument against philosophy! How might a philosopher Rebutt? [closed]

All difficulties with respect to philosophy are with respect to the mind. But the mind is the production and implementation of philosophy. That is, philosophy is its own difficulties.
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What is an internalist/externalist epistemology of trust?

I read this entry and am still unclear on this. In particular on the external kind. If I am unaware of reasons for why I trust someone, then why am I trusting them? There is always a "reason", even ...
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How are empirical concepts acquired according to Kant?

In Critique of Pure Reason Kant describes in detail what aspects of our knowledge are a priori, and how they function, but on the empirical aspects he is sketchy and cryptic. Very briefly, our ...
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Can correspondence and coherence views of truth be compatible?

If in the course of interacting with an external world, a person is creating a set of coherent knowledge about this world, then there should be a mapping between their beliefs and the external facts. ...
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Why is Tarski's notion of logical validity preferred to deductive one?

Its flaws are well-known and serious. To recall, an inference from A to B is valid iff all interpretations of "non-logical constants" that make A true also make B true. What are interpretations, ...
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What does Bachelard mean by “Applied Rationalism”?

I've heard this term many times. I've tried to google it but there is a very little about it. There is no online resource which explains the term and what is this position. So my question is, What ...
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Dualities and categories

Aristotle in the Metaphysics writes: Others of the same school declare that there are ten principles arranged into two parallel columns: Limit Unlimited Odd Even One ...
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How to understand Nozick's response to Descartes's Skeptical Argument?

Consider the following Skeptical Argument: P1. You do not know that you are not a brain in a vat. P2. You know that if you have hands, then you are not a brain in a vat P3. If you know that A, and ...
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Introductory books on epistemology for someone interested in artificial intelligence

It was suggested to me, as someone who is interested in going into the field of AGI (artificial general intelligence) that I read up on epistemology (a field in which I am rather unfamiliar). Are ...
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What is the connection between temporal and epistemic knowledge?

Recently I read all kinds of work from logic scientists in which epistemic logic was the main topic. Where epistmic change refers to change in knowledge of some agent in a multi-agent system (in a ...
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What is the “simple logical truth” that makes omniscience self-contradictory?

Patrick Grim claims in "Problems with Omniscience" that there is a "simple truth well established as a logical theorem", which shows that omniscience is a contradictory concept. I am failing to see ...
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Questions on the second meditation by Descartes

Upon reading the second meditation of Descartes, I am perplexed by an illustration Descartes presents involving wax. For reference, this illustration, or argument, is contained within the 11th and ...
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Can your attitude towards a proposition P be that P is false or do you actually believe ~P?

Started reading about beliefs and propositions, and the working definition I have of X believes P is that X thinks P is true. So suppose I don't believe P. Would it be more accurate to say I think P ...
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183 views

Is it possible to argue against a person who is skeptical about the meaning of all words?

Such person would consider the meaning of all words to be vague (including the meaning of the word "vague" ), and think that actually we do not know what we are talking about (including this sentence ...
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What does Schopenhauer mean by etiology?

Schopenhauer in Will and Representation writes: What is the use of explanations that ultimately refer us to something whose inner nature is quite as unknown as the thing we started with? Do we in ...
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Carl Hempel's covering law model of explanation in history

According to Carl Hempel in "The Function of General Laws in History" (The Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 39, No. 2, 1942, pp. 35-48), explanation in history consists of the "derivation of the ...
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113 views

The Opposite Point of Positivist Epistemology

In the philosophy of science, I wanted to know what is the exact opposite point of the positivist epistemology? Actually I'm not from the philosophy area and thus not familiar with different ...
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What is the meaning of “There are questions that science can't answer”?

I've recently come across several statements to the effect "there are questions science can't answer", mostly from proponents of religion and mysticism, but also from scientists and secular ...
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Connection between Kant's defense of the belief in God and Kant's categories?

Kant states in the Critique of Pure Reason (English translation) that Thus the entire armament of reason, in the undertaking that one can call pure philosophy, is in fact directed only at the ...
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The Copernican Principle and the Giant Void [closed]

Daniel Holz writes on a popular science blog Cosmic Variance:"The Copernican principle is a guiding foundation of cosmology. In short, it states that we are not in a privileged place in the Universe. ...
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Mathematical theorems and science

We know mathematics is applied constantly in science to solve problems, even if sometimes (e.g: modern physics) there is not always a intuition of why such theorems can be applied (since there isn't ...
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144 views

Should scientific theories be self-consistent?

Bridgeman writes in A Physicist's Second Reaction to Mengenlehre:"The feeling that actually existing things are not self-contradictory is so elemental as to almost constitute a definition of what we ...
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220 views

Why does philosophy exist?

If Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems, such as those connected with reality, existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind and language. As defined by Wikipedia. Then if ...
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How do modern metaphysicians respond to Kant and Wittgenstein?

As far as I've understood, Kant argued that metaphysical knowledge is impossible because the human mind is not capable enough to acquire it. Wittgenstein, on the other hand, claimed that metaphysical ...
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What is meaningful?

Which propositions are considered meaningful and on what grounds? In other words, when is it correct to predicate 'meaningfulness' of the propositions?
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Does Math, or analogically Language really have any impact on our “Thoughts”?

Here I see many say, language has an important impact on our thoughts. But according to this question, Foucault in the preface to The Order of Things wrote how he 'laughed out loud' when he ...
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Type theory and metaphor

In my experience, textbooks and introductory material on type theory (or constructive logic systems) are remarkably devoid of metaphor. I never found any introductory text in those fields that ...
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Challenges to the principle of deductive closure

Consider the principle of deductive closure: PDC. K(p) ∧ K(p → q) ⊢ K(q) Informally (and roughly) this means that we know the logical consequences of the things we know. Despite ...
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Are all sufficient conditions necessary?

If x is the necessary condition of A, then it doesn't follow that x is sufficient. However, if it were a sufficient condition, would it also follow that x is a necessary condition? Put otherwise, is a ...
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Skeptical hypothesis as undecidable statement

Does anybody support the idea that the skeptical hypothesis (like the possibility that we are brains in a vat) is not assessable? By that I mean that the skeptical hypothesis may resemblance the sort ...
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204 views

If you're the smartest person on earth, how do you know if you're making logic errors? [closed]

In any logical argument, there is the practical step of verifying that it is sound. When there are experts in that particular area, they can check the argument for soundness. For two examples: A ...
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How can I know that I know something? [closed]

This also a question about what is the definition of knowledge.