Epistemology is the study of knowledge, acquisition thereof, and the justification of belief in a given claim.

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Causality : social construction or self-evocating phenomena?

Individual autonomy would come from Hellenistic roots and would have been developed within Christian scholastic spheres as an important property of the human paragon (so you can easily blame it and ...
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121 views

The belief that everything is expressible in mathematical terms?

For want of a better word, mathematicism will be defined as the belief that everything is expressible in mathematical terms. I'm not sure if this is a position that anyone affirms, as my thoughts on ...
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Why aren't creationism and natural science on the same level? (Or are they?)

In the infamous creation museum a strategically very shrewd exhibit, where a scientist and a biblical scholar both study the same fossils, is being presented: The sign says “different ...
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Problem of old evidence

I've come across the so-called "problem of old evidence" in Bayesian statistics/epistemology. First, let me summarize the problem as I see it so we're on the same page. Suppose I have a theory ...
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62 views

Holism, reductionism and emergence

I try to understand the difference between holism and reductionism and I wonder whether the concept of emergence belongs to the first one or whether it is just "holism through the eyes of a ...
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111 views

What is the opposite of the reductionist approach?

I am searching for two opposite words in philosophy of science to describe two opposite approaches in physics. To illustrate what I am searching for I will use statistical physics and particle physics ...
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44 views

Who postulates the inability of a system to describe a system larger than itself?

Sorry for the poor question wording. I have a vague memory of reading about a theory in philosphy, mathematics, or physics which says something like this. The idea, as I remember it, is that any given ...
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49 views

Difference between experiencial beliefs and beliefs formed on religious experiences

I have heard and read some religious apologists argue something to the effect that we have no more reason to believe our ordinary experiences than we have to believe our religious intuitions and ...
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1answer
39 views

What could be a philosophical view on hallucinations and selfidentity? [closed]

I am writing my thesis on the experience of hearing voices and I am looking at it from an Interpretative Phenomenoogical (methodology IPA) perspective, so I am also reading a lot of philosophy at the ...
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32 views

What are some articles that give reasons for trusting one's perceptions, memory, or reasoning?

Note that by trusting one's perceptions, I mean trusting that one has perceptions, rather than trusting that one's perceptions are "accurate". Preferably, the articles should be rigorous and ...
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106 views

By what criteria would we recognise a theory of AI?

By what criteria do we judge as to whether we have understood consciousness on a theoretical basis? One criteria might be the construction of AI (but this can't be the whole story as everyday new ...
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88 views

What is science in the 'gay science'?

First, I haven't read the book; but have come across some excerpts in one of Foucaults essays. It occurs to me that given Nietszches famous antipathy to Christianity, and that Adam/Eve were evicted ...
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100 views

Could Cultural/Epistemologial Biases Have Influenced the Evolutionary Concept of Behavioral Modernism? [closed]

Could orthodox conceptions of Human evolution--which rest upon the theory of Behavioral Modernism--be marred by cultural and epistemological biases. For example, are industrialized human populations ...
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28 views

'Ought' and the Principle of Generic Consistency?

Late philosopher Alan Gewirth introduced the Principle of Generic Consistency, or the PGC, which says that moral agents ought to respect the generic rights of freedom and well-being because they are ...
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2answers
55 views

Could 'ought' be defined as sentimentalism?

The traditional definition of ought is "moral obligation" as defined by multiple online dictionaries. Some authors, like Harris, have defined ought as maximizing expected well being (a fancy way of ...
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137 views

Quantum Mechanics and Radical Constructivism

Is there an interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM) based on radical constructivism? If yes, what construction of QM does it suggest? If no, can you speculate on such interpretation? So far my ...
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430 views

Is there any reason to believe that there are things which science cannot tell us?

Science can only tell us a posteriori synthetic truths, can this category extend to all propositions about the world. Surely the only things which can by known ONLY by a priori analytic are ...
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123 views

How do laws of nature enforce themselves?

The Humean view prevailing today is that laws of nature are mere regularities of the empirical events. However, there seems to be a difference between post factum regularities, like the Titius-Bode ...
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126 views

Did Friedrich Nietzsche believe in “the truth”?

It is well known that Friedrich Nietzsche was very condemnatory of the objective truth, however, while analyzing his words, it is difficult to ascertain whether or not he believes in the truth at all. ...
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71 views

Should a skeptic consider anecdote as evidence?

I asked this question on Skeptics SE, and they referred me here. I've heard some skeptics say that any anecdotal evidence should be dismissed immediately, as anecdote is notoriously unreliable. ...
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325 views

Is Galileo's argument about falling bodies logically flawed?

Galileo's famous argument against the Aristotle's theory of falling bodies goes like this. "Let's say heavy objects do fall faster than light ones. Then it seems the heavier weight will fall with the ...
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What is the philosophy behind the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics?

Perhaps it is a stereotype, but I assumed that most physicists are empirical realists (external reality affects our senses, and science infers a representation of it from sensory data). At the same ...
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61 views

We know substances by means of their accidents?

Where does Aristotle or St. Thomas Aquinas say we know substances by means of their accidents? For example: To know the substance of an apple, I first have to sense its quantity and qualities: shape, ...
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Are passive observation and active experimentation the only ways of knowledge production?

This is the topic of my essay for a high school theory of knowledge class. I think that the question implies that all knowledge stems directly (in the case of passive observation) or indirectly (in ...
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Why happiness is induced by that which baffles us: What does laughter reveals about human nature? [closed]

I will attempt to be prompt. Variables/strings/operators: *The prime symbol (') will be used as an operator for an action's derivative [here, meaning antecedent] (e.g (eating a sandwich)' = ...
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1answer
83 views

Is there some known problem that reflects the legitimacy of asking why infinitely many times?

When I was a kid, I remind that I had a strange type of game - I was mostly concerned of annoying other persons. Whenever they assumed something, I asked why, and then when they aswered, I asked why ...
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241 views

What purpose do mathematics and philosophy serve epistemologically (compared to sciences)?

Kant did not consider them sciences, but meta-disciplines that study a priori conditions of doing science. Indeed, both mathematics and philosophy permeate all empirical sciences to varying degrees, ...
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108 views

Why is the “brain in a vat” scenario meaningful?

In class we discussed the famous "brain in a vat" case, where since you can't differentiate between that case and "reality", you have no way of knowing that you are, in fact, in reality. But what I ...
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179 views

Was Kant right about space and time (and wrong about knowledge)?

According to Kant our empirical experience is synthesized from sensations through categories. Apparently, unconscious "productive ability of imagination" mediates the process using the schemes of ...
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45 views

What kind of conditional does Nozick use in his theory of knowledge?

Knowledge is traditionally defined as justified true belief: in order for S to know P, S must believe P, P must be true, and S must be justified in believing P. Now this definition has been ...
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253 views

Logic - 3 Cannibals Riddle Reduced to 2 Steps

From reddit Cannibals ambush a safari in the jungle and capture three men. The cannibals give the men a single chance to escape uneaten. The captives are lined up in order of height, and are tied to ...
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112 views

Why is the Kochsche Curve and programming so similiar? [closed]

I've question which I'm looking for longer time. The iteration process while a for loop > for statement in function_declaration: is looping over all instances and giving out one statement after ...
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180 views

What is mathematics? [duplicate]

Is mathematical practice: an act of discovery of eternal objects and ideas independent of human existence; an intuition-free game in which symbols are manipulated according to a fixed sets of rules; ...
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How does “Process Reliabilism” differ from Coherentism and Foundationalism?

My current understanding is that there are three main schools of thought with regards to how a belief can be justified. The three main theories are: Foundationalism, which argues that justified ...
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Is there parallelism between mental acts and development of science?

In Kuhn's description of scientific history observations are interpreted through a prism of a priori presuppositions collected into "paradigms". Once discrepancies with expectations ("anomalies") ...
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Explaining Quine's dismissal of the circularity problem in naturalistic epistemology

In "Epistemology Naturalized", Quine acknowledges the possibility of the circularity criticism of naturalism, but goes on to say ..such scruples have little point once we have stopped dreaming of ...
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264 views

Doesn't slavery still exist? [closed]

In history slavery did exist in physical form. In those days common men were forced to serve the higher class because of lack of knowledge, wisdom and education; and in return what they got was a ...
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Exhaustive studies of states of conscious and how we know what we know?

Have been hunting for a while: Is there a sort of compendium of epistemology out there? Not a who's who in epistemology per se, rather more a what's what that spans all schools of thought, cultures, ...
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Are we born critically synthesising concepts?

Following this question asking about whether we are born 'critically thinking'; which suggested this question asking whether we are born with Kants categories. Expanding further on the original ...
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213 views

Are we born with Kantian Categories?

Following this question; given that Kantian Categories are required to sythesise Concepts and for the conditions of experience; does this mean that we are born with them?
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565 views

If the Platonic world exists how would we know?

If we assume existence of a non-material world of ideas that mathematics describes there are some questions that a Platonist has to address. 1) How is the ideal world related to the real one, where ...
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Can we prove reality?

I heard someone make an assertion that 'We cannot really prove that there is reality.'. 'Reality' here would mean the universe and everything in it. You could look at an apple and think its an apple ...
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Are there any notable philosophical skeptics since Nietzsche, perhaps in the style of Nietzsche?

I'm a bit taken by Nietzsche's philosophical skepticism, which is skeptical even of scientific knowledge. I've come to believe that the more rigorous you are in your thinking, the more skeptical you ...
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A trivial response to Gettier problems

What problems arise in responding to Gettier problems with an assertion "the formal definition of knowledge, as justified true belief, does not need to exactly correspond to intuitive notions of ...
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Why distrust our senses?

It seems self-evident that the phenomena we sense are accurate and correlate to the real world. What sorts of philosophical arguments might cast doubt on this conviction in the veridicality of ...
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90 views

Does Descartes' cogito require awareness of thinking?

Descartes cogito is 'I think therefore I am'. Can an ant do the same? Breaking this down, one has 'I think' and I am aware that 'I am thinking' and therefore 'I am'. One requires here it seems some ...
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42 views

What are the axioms for quantified modal logic?

The plainest vanilla variety of propositional modal logic introduces two operators <> which is possibility, and [] which is neccessity. The axioms are: ◊p iff ¬□¬p □p iff ¬◊¬p What is ...
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51 views

Are memes philosophically coherent?

Dawkins introduced the term meme as the corresponding cultural analogy to that of gene in biology. But is it specious? How does meme differ from belief, idea or notion? A gene is defined ...
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What if any inherent obstructions are there to scientific understanding? [closed]

A friend described the methodology of science as follows: Observe some aspect of the universe. Invent a tentative description, called a hypothesis, that is consistent with what you have ...
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Propositional knowledge vs. Procedural knowledge vs Knowledge by acquaintance

I am looking for a reference which explains the differences between these conceptions of knowledge (and potentially others). Ideally, I prefer an academic paper authored by a respected scholar.