Epistemology is the study of knowledge, acquisition thereof, and the justification of belief in a given claim.

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Propositional knowledge vs. Procedural knowledge vs Knowledge by acquaintance

I am looking for a reference which explains the differences between these conceptions of knowledge (and potentially others). Ideally, I prefer an academic paper authored by a respected scholar.
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What is an epistemic norm?

What is the definition of an epistemic norm? In what ways does it differ from a consistency norm or a rationality norm? Specifically, are epistemic norms a superset of rationality norms? EDIT: ...
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Is it possible to be truly unbiased?

I was pondering this question: Inductive Argument Against Believing Anything I his argument, the OP suggests that, in the position of choosing a system of belief where there are multiple, large ...
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Why should we believe other people, or scientists?

Looking for sourced answers or article references for this question, please. Why should someone believe another person's assertions? I would imagine that the answer is because most of the times when ...
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Inductive Argument Against Believing Anything

I don't understand why I should believe my own conclusions. Let's take the metaphysical question of whether God exists (just as an example). There are, and have been throughout history, billions of ...
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Could a philosophical zombie conclude “cogito ergo sum”?

Could a philosophical zombie conclude "cogito ergo sum"? Assume a philosophical zombie which is a hypothetical being that is indistinguishable from a normal human being except in that it lacks ...
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Why Bad Things (Habits/Pessimism) prevails automatically,But Good Things(Optimism) wont be adhered even if induced? [closed]

Good Habits are not adhered to our routines even if practised where as Bad Habits are too much attractive implicitly without any effort. Why? Here, Please dont simply Divide Good & Bad Habits are ...
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How to reconcile authority and knowledge?

We all know that appeals to authority do not make for good arguments. At the same time, it seems that in daily life, people act as if they have actual knowledge and not belief. I was listening to a ...
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Roko's Basilisk as Descartes' evil genius?

I'll try to pose a shortened version of Roko's Basilisk below and then ask about how it relates to Descartes' evil genius: The idea is that down the line may it be decades or centuries from ...
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What are the implications of Baudrillard's ideas to epistemology?

I would simply like to know what you guys think... what points does his social theory, including his concept of hyperreality, intersect with theory of knowledge?
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Is our Philosophy, the Human Philosophy, the only possible Philosophy which can exist?

What I'm asking is if is there any possibility for a Non-human Philosophy, that is, a Philosophy founded on questions which we can't even conceive. Is possible a Philosophy of questions which only can ...
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5answers
249 views

Since any human language describes objects, does it therefore contain some knowledge of the Nature and laws of its development? [closed]

This question complements the question: Do higher level comprehensive Laws, which govern the phenomena of Nature, exist? One philosophical debate in epistemology and ontology is whether knowledge ...
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99 views

Is there any logical connection between Plato's theory of forms and the savant syndrome?

First of all i would like to state my understanding of 'Plato's theory of forms' (very short version; excuse my poor english): The platonic ideas are much more than mere representations in the human ...
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76 views

How can intuitions be infallible?

I happen to come across the theory that intuitions are infallible, therefore whatever we intuit must be true. How is this rational at all? Our intuitions do not come from experience, so we really can ...
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regarding the authority of past philosophy writers [closed]

If some madman who hates philosophy found a way to destroy all works of philosophy where-ever they exist in print or electronically stored so the only 'rememberences' of such work are 'with' a few ...
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Could there ever be evidence for an infinite being?

The God of Anselm is understood as "that than which nothing greater can be conceived." From this definition, God can be presumed to be omnipotent, omniscient, omnipresent, perfectly free, uncaused, ...
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Can a non-falsifiable belief ever be justified (besides for tautologies)?

Probably thanks to Popper, a scientific theory would never be taken seriously if it wasn't as least in some way falsifiable. Without getting into the nitty-gritty of the many theories of ...
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Epistemic justification - 'turtles all the way down'?

There's an age old problem (though I'm not sure of it's age exactly) regarding epistemic justification: how can I be justified in anything that I know to be true, even a principle as basic as modus ...
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102 views

Can we have objective knowledge? [closed]

Is agentive activity included in every representation (intension)? If so the extension of every representation includes some information about the interactivity between the representing agent and the ...
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Should ever one ought to believe a proposition that he *knows* to be false?

Has this question ever been discussed in the philosophical literature? An example that comes to mind is a proposition like "I am the best chess player in the world" during a chess match. Arguably, ...
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Explain Hilary Putnam's argument against Cartesian skepticism

Hilary Putnam, in "Reason, Truth And History", attempts to argue against Cartesian (or hyperbolic) doubt, by proving that a 'brain in a vat' cannot actually think that it is a brain in a vat. Part ...
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Are there *a priori* truths for a self-learning artificial intelligence system?

Assume a group of scientists builds a self learning artificial intelligence (AI) system, consisting of the following components: Some input data channels and sensors, allowing the system to learn ...
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Do we only believe statements when we think of them?

Do we only believe statements like "2+2=4" when we think of them? That is what I believe(at least at this moment!). I am not saying we believe it is false, either, but most of the time we are just not ...
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Does Cartesian Doubt Depend on Cartesian Dualism?

Even though this isn't exactly accurate, the way I like to think of Descartes' hyperbolic doubt as stating that there's no way to prove that information gained through sensory experience is accurate. ...
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How well does the Direct Reference Theory (DRT) work for evidence reports?

The dominant theory of reference, to my knowledge, is still the Direct Reference Theory (DRT). According to DRT, we can always replace a proper name referring to some object x, with another proper ...
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Justify Occam's Razor

I'm aware of a few justifications for Occam's (or Ockham) Razor, as it's usually understood that extra factors/complexities should not be added unnecessarily. The only truly compelling justification I ...
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What are atheism and agnosticism? [closed]

(Apologies for the crazy length question) Whenever the thorny issue of theism vs. atheism comes up -- especially on the internet -- a further issue always seems to arise concerning what these ...
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Isn't Nietzsche's Übermensch idea self-contradictory?

Doesn't Nietzsche's Übermensch contradicts itself in that understanding everything would enable propagation of that understanding? Wouldn't Nietzsche's Übermensch eventually fully understand how the ...
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How should we understand the oracle's dilemma in making a prediction?

Let's look at a thought experiment: There is an oracle who has exact knowledge of the state of a deterministic universe, so her predictions about the universe's future have always turned out to be ...
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Shouldn't fallibilism be a reason to abandon science?

The Wikipedia page on Fallibilism (currently) makes the intriguing claim that "Fallibilism is related to Pyrrhonistic Skepticism, in that Pyrrhonists of history are sometimes referred to as ...
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Could the Pyrrhonians be wrong?

The Pyrrhonians believed that "ataraxia" can be obtained by suspending judgement upon anything non-evident. They also noted the senses are faulty and the intellect too obscure, to understand and ...
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Conditions for Deduction

Hume posited a well known critique of causality that goes back to al-Ghazali - that there is no neccesary connection between a cause and an effect. The same argument it seems can be targeted to ...
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Are there any other things like 'Cogito ergo sum' that we can be certain of?

Are there any other things we can be certain of? Are there any 'hooks' that can be hooked into 'I think therefore I am', that one could be 100% certain are truthful as 'I think therefore I am' ...
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Explanation of the KK principle

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/KK_thesis If it's true, then do I already know that it's true? And, if I know that I know something, then do I know it? I'm not sure I know what knowing that I know ...
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What is consider fake in the subject of philosophy? [closed]

What is consider fake in the subject of philosophy? In another word, what is pseudo-philosophy? There is meaning of life, meaning of justice and meaning in money in philosophy, what is the definition ...
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88 views

Actual infinite vs. Potential infinite [closed]

I'm looking for bibliography about the problem of Actual infinite vs. Potential infinite. I would appreciate information about papers or books treating this problem deeply, philosophical and ...
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101 views

Epistemology and logic

Browsing on the Internet, it seems to me that knowledge (viz. the ability to know that) is invariably linked to propositional modal logic. Why is that? Could we not say, for instance, that knowledge ...
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What school of thought is used in Wolfenstein: The New Order Tekla Monologue?

What philosophical frame is used in this Wolfenstein: The New Order Tekla Monologue? -B Jesus Christ Tekla, aren't you asleep? -T I try not to sleep. No telling if I will ever wake up. -T Let me ask ...
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Epistemology of infinite sets

I'm trying to understand the difference between sets from an epistemological point of view. Let S be a finite set of cardinality = n, I find intuitive that I can hold epistemically the set S without ...
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Definition of concept

What definition does contemporary analytic philosophy give of 'concept'? And what is the difference between a concept of something and a conception of something? Then what's the difference between ...
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Classical possible worlds semantics

It looks like to me that possible worlds semantics are closely associated with propositional modal logic (or interior/closure algebras). Is there any literature where possible worlds semantics is ...
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71 views

What is the precise definition of perfection [closed]

I am told its a self evident term and cannot be defined.I am of the view that perfection is relative for our minds are designed to perceive something perfect and something defective. Can I be proven ...
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What exactly is metaphysical possibility?

In the literature about the epistemology of modality I stumbled upon various types of possibilities, e.g. epistemic possibility, metaphysical possibility. I have a rough unterstanding of these, but ...
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Is Chomskys universal grammar synthetic a priori?

Chomskys notion of a universal grammar is his way of comprehending that human languages appear to have a deep grammar, and that children appear to learn language as though they are primed for it. It ...
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Embryo stem cells and the concept of “person”

I have to do a very good,clear and simple presentation on embryo stem cells so that everyone can understand. I have done the part of biology regarding this cells but I have to do the part that regards ...
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How many colours are there for-us (as qualia)?

The visual spectrum, for human beings, occupies only a very small section of the full electro-magnetic spectrum. This, allows the possibility, that there are more possible colour qualia possible. ...
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What is the word for… human thinking / imagination / understanding is limited by human experience

(Forgive my lack of accurate wording, English is not my first language, in addition I'm not a philosophy expert.) I cannot recall the word I have seen once, describing a theory where human ...
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What is the relation between Descartes' “lumen naturale”, God and logic?

This is not a question about the cogito argument in the closer sense. I will try to isolate my questions from the other questions posted concerning Descartes. If I understood what I've read ...
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How would anyone know if they saw the equation of everything?

Given this answer by user34445 to the question: Final theory in Physics: a mathematical existence proof? ...
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Is the concept of an all-knowing being logically impossible?

When you think about it, how can something be 'all-knowing'? Say that I am all-knowing (although I'm not). Now, that would mean that I know that I am all-knowing, because I know everything. But how ...