The history of philosophy is the study of philosophical ideas and concepts through time. Issues specifically related to history of philosophy might include (but are not limited to): How can changes in philosophy be accounted for historically? What drives the development of thought in its historical ...

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Literature similar to Cicero's “On the Ideal Orator”?

I've been reading various speeches and works by Cicero, and while reading On the Ideal Orator, I was wondering whether any other philosophers (especially relatively contemporary ones) also wrote on ...
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42 views

Belief Pathways (Social Doxology)

In the social psychology literature, there is a lot of discussion about the pathways through which one achieves social belief formation (i.e. persuasion, coercion, etc.). These differ from those ...
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Why and how personal philosophies of certain thinkers became recognized as “classical” main stream approaches?

Why and how personal philosophies of certain thinkers (starting from Ancient Greek ones and up to modern ones) became recognized as "classical" main stream approaches ?
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Who are historical proponents of moral anti-realism?

I was wondering about the history of moral anti-realism. It seems to me that realism has been the dominant view since Plato, with anti-realism being given systematic attention only in the last 100 ...
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65 views

Does “subjective attractiveness” have a place in philosophy?

I've just started reading Christian Apologetics: A Comprehensive Case for Biblical Faith by Douglas Groothuis. He says on page 25: This definition of apologetics invokes both rational legitimacy ...
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29 views

Where is philosophy today [closed]

Basically I'd like to know which are the main philosophical schools today (meaning maybe the last 5-10 or even 15-20 years), where they come from and, if there is a reasonable answer, where are they ...
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1answer
77 views

Why do we have a problem about understanding the concept of the “empty set”?

   The title seems quite bit more generalized, but I'm saying about the philosophers and mathematicians in the past who discussed about the concept of nothing, or the empty set. I'm ...
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241 views

Was Jesus a philosopher?

I apologise for being brief, and this question likely will get put on hold, as there can be no definitive answer if he was or was not, plus it can induce debate. Reasoning that Jesus was a philosopher ...
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36 views

Why has cynicism acquired a negative connotation? [closed]

It seems to me that people criticize others for being cynical. But why is cynicism so bad? Upon reflection, it is easy to see that a lot of people are not very trustworthy. So, I think everyone is ...
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57 views

When does the philosophy of a newly created (academic) discipline typically arise?

I occasionally spend some of my spare time reading through the questions and answers of interest on these SE websites, and I recently came across this question: Can a certain branch of philosophy ...
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121 views

Why are Free Will discussions always framed as a question of “free will” rather than “free choice” (of action)?

In debates or discussion regarding the question of whether or not human beings (or any other being) has the ability to decide for themselves what to do, the term invariably used is free will. However, ...
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2answers
65 views

Philosophy of the lymphatic system

If neurophilosophy is a legitimate from of philosophy why don’t we have philosophies pertaining to various other sub-personal processes/systems: autonomic, vestibular, and proprioceptive? Why not ...
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1answer
66 views

Who Invented the Modal Fallacy?

The Modal Fallacy is the best known of the fallacies related to Modal Logic. But, it is difficult to find the name of the logician who established the modal fallacy. Was it Aristotle? And, how does ...
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Chrysippus and Strict Implicature

In A History of Ancient Philosophy, Karsten Friis Johansen claims that Chrysippus offers a theory of truth for conditionals that is a version of strict implicature and intensional semantics. However, ...
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1answer
37 views

Classical and Medieval Scholars on Modal Logic

Who most influenced the development of modal logic prior to the nineteenth century - aside from the Aristoteleans, Dialecticals, and Stoics of course?
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1answer
36 views

Who were the major innovators of new types of syllogisms?

Who were the major innovators of new kinds of syllogisms (i.e. introduced disjunctive syllogisms, etc) in the ancient and medieval periods aside from Aristotle, Theophrastus, the Stoics, and ...
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1answer
62 views

What did Einstein make of Bohmian Mechanics?

Its well-known that Einstein was uncomfortable about the anti-realist and non-deterministic status of Quantum Mechanics, declaring that God does not play dice However, a realist and ...
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164 views

Did Thales really argue this?

Neil deGrasse Tyson in “Deeper, Deeper, Deeper Still” (Cosmos) says something to the following effect. The ancient Greek philosopher Thales argued that natural events such as weather patterns ...
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1answer
65 views

(Where) did Leibniz write “Sans les mathématiques on ne pénètre point…”?

Sans les mathématiques on ne pénètre point au fond de la philosophie. Sans la philosophie on ne pénètre point au fond des mathématiques. Sans les deux on ne pénètre au fond de rien. The above ...
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2answers
86 views

Was Marcus Aurelius the first philosopher-king?

Marcus Aurelius, well-known for his Meditations, in the second century AD, was a Stoic philosopher and also emperor of the Roman empire. Plato, in his Republic, advised that the ideal rulers of his ...
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99 views

Which was the first philosopher to think of ET?

Looking at the sky, we seen the moon, stars, sun and planets. Their motion have been plotted since Early Babylonia, and gods and godesses have been associated with them. When, so we are told, men ...
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6answers
533 views

Who was the earliest known philosopher?

Who was the earliest known philosopher? Is it Confucius or Thales they were both around same time.
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54 views

Greek political philosophy and theory?

I'm interested in political philosophy, and I was hoping to become rounded in Greek political theory and philosophy, in hopes of moving on to Roman political philosophy with a bit of context. My ...
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1answer
91 views

Major Questions resolved or unresolved in Philosophy

Is there any collection of the major Questions that have driven philosophical thought through the ages? I'm not strictly referring to the branches of philosophy but the arguments therein. Thanks
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1answer
77 views

What were Cicero's original contributions to philosophy?

While reading history of philosophy books, Cicero's name often comes up. However I remain unclear of what if any are his original contributions to the philosophy of that period. I know that he was an ...
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3answers
129 views

Whats the earliest documented instance of Buddhist Philosophy on European thought?

Whats the earliest recorded instance of Buddhist thought in a European context - say a translation. I know that Schopenhauer (1788-1860) read the Bhagavad Gita - but this is a Hindu text and not a ...
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36 views

How did Antiquity deal with the disappearance of the Transcendent?

In Western Philosophy, Existentialism heeding Nietzches call was the first philosophy that dealt with the loss of the transcendent in a formal way. Whereas prior to him, it anchored, or rather was ...
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188 views

How inaccurate is a History of Western Philosophy by Bertrand Russell

I finished reading 'A History of Western Philosophy' by Bertrand Russell a while ago. Not being an expert by any stretch I thought it was very good (informative, accessible, enjoyable etc..). But I ...
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604 views

What does Foucault mean by discursive practices or discursive constitutions in definition of discourse?

Foucault uses the concept of discursive practices or discursive constitutions in the definition of discourse. What does he mean by this concept? How are discursive practices different from ...
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133 views

What does Spivak mean exactly in her paper “can the subaltern speak”?

What does G. Spivak mean by epistemic violence in her essay "Can the subaltern speak"? What I understand by her paper is that intellectuals in Europe and western countries control the kind of ...
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46 views

History of determinism

Does determinism have its roots in logic? When was determinism as a discrete discipline first recorded? I am just interested in the historical aspect at the moment.
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135 views

What did Democritus talk about when he talked about “atoms”?

What did the ancient atomists, e.g. Democritus, say about the number of different sorts of atoms? Did they assume four sorts, corresponding to the four elements (earth, water, air, fire, water)? Any ...
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72 views

Logic as a (bad) model language

Can someone name the most well known philosophers to explicitly put forward an idea along the lines that formal systems can only be used descriptively, not prescriptively - that they're just a model, ...
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3answers
92 views

Is postmodernism pro or against abrahamic religion? [on hold]

Sorry for the long text, but I need to explain my thoughts well. When it is said that postmodernism gives equal space to all forms of thought, many people think it means they are giving space to ...
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2answers
108 views

Element Earth in ancient Greece

Assuming that it is somehow clear what the ancient Greeks saw in their mind's eye when they talked about the elements (substances) Air, Water and Fire, I wonder what they had in mind when they talked ...
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284 views

Is Western Philosophy Inherently Patriarchal and Mono-racial? [closed]

Philosophy has always been a powerful social institution, even before the Athenian “Golden Age” and its professionalization over the last few centuries. Still, many give a deflationary account of its ...
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1answer
43 views

Was there support for panpsychism among the Romantic poets?

Phillip Pullman, author of the His Dark Materials trilogy and vocal critic of religion, is a supporter of panpsychism, the doctrine that consciousness arises because every inanimate particle actually ...
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119 views

Viewpoints of how the law should apply to authorities

When it comes to the question as to what extent authorities in a state should be bound by the laws of the state (which they often make themselves), there seem to be two main viewpoints, one of them ...
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Have professional philosophers contributed to other fields in the last 20 years?

Here are some quotes from Scott Aaronson's interview: progress in math and science — think of natural selection, Godel’s and Turing’s theorems, relativity and quantum mechanics — has repeatedly ...
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1answer
107 views

What were the 'costs' in completeness in formulating ZFC in first-order logic?

Wikipedia on [2nd order-logic] states: Predicate logic was primarily introduced to the mathematical community by C. S. Peirce, who coined the term second-order logic and whose notation is most ...
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1answer
69 views

What are the ramifications of the limitations of ZFC set theory?

In the Wikipedia article on Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory says that the theory sets out to formalize a notion of sets such that "all entities in the universe of discourse are such sets." It goes on to ...
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1answer
148 views

Did Nietzsche plagiarize Stirner?

There has been some fuss about the main ideas of Nietzsche's philosophy and Stirner's main work The Ego and Its Own even if Nietzsche usually attributes to Schopenhauer the main influence of his work. ...
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248 views

what lies beyond absurdity?

What should I read to break out of the endless loop that brings me back to the absurdity of (my?) perceived reality? (I'm not talking on a human scale but on an endless time scale) If the question has ...
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141 views

Are the Efforts to Fuse Philosophy and Pop Culture Superficial?

The state of our aesthetic and consumer-based economy has brought philosophy to a transitional stage at many levels. Many wonder what will be its future or where philosophy should go from here. It is ...
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66 views

What does philosophy exactly do? [closed]

I need your help understanding philosophy. For some reason, I'm not understanding the objective of this subject. Frankly, I only had 1 semester of philosophy so maybe it isn't enough to really ...
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1answer
47 views

Is there a pantheistic religion built by Xenophanes?

In my philosophical overview book its said that Xenophanes was the first to criticize the greek polytheism. He concluded that there can only be one god. My book also says that this god is omnipresent ...
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1answer
96 views

Why was there a philosophical outbreak around 600BC?

I finally passed the first chapters of my pretty old (1961) Philosophy Overview book and found a nice compilation of what happened around the time 600 BC in different parts of the world: 550 BC: ...
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1answer
412 views

Source for “The world is beautiful, but has a disease called man”?

It seems resonant with certain elements of his philosophy, and is generally attributed to Nietzsche, but I cannot seem to find the precise source anywhere. I was struck, in passing, by the variety ...
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76 views

Objective reality vs. illusion in Descartes' time

Descartes' argument for god includes his idea of "objective reality", id est, clear and distinct perception implies existence. Considering his own scientific bent of mind, I'm curious to know what he ...
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65 views

Question Concerning A Line From Empedocles Works

Here is the paragraph containing the line to which I referred in the title: The powers spread over the body are constricted, and many afflictions burst in and dull their meditations. After ...