The history of philosophy is the study of philosophical ideas and concepts through time. Issues specifically related to history of philosophy might include (but are not limited to): How can changes in philosophy be accounted for historically? What drives the development of thought in its historical ...

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How did Antiquity deal with the disappearance of the Transcendent?

In Western Philosophy, Existentialism heeding Nietzches call was the first philosophy that dealt with the loss of the transcendent in a formal way. Whereas prior to him, it anchored, or rather was ...
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84 views

How inaccurate is a History of Western Philosophy by Bertrand Russell

I finished reading 'A History of Western Philosophy' by Bertrand Russell a while ago. Not being an expert by any stretch I thought it was very good (informative, accessible, enjoyable etc..). But I ...
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Common understanding of Logic in the G-R world

I'm looking for a good resource on the history of the common understanding of logic in the Greco-Roman world. I'm not as interested in what Aristotle or the stoics wrote as I am about how "common" ...
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54 views

What does Foucault mean by discursive practices or discursive constitutions in definition of discourse?

Foucault uses the concept of discursive practices or discursive constitutions in the definition of discourse. What does he mean by this concept? How are discursive practices different from ...
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What does Spivak mean exactly in her paper “can the subaltern speak”?

What does G. Spivak mean by epistemic violence in her essay "Can the subaltern speak"? What I understand by her paper is that intellectuals in Europe and western countries control the kind of ...
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113 views

What did Democritus talk about when he talked about “atoms”?

What did the ancient atomists, e.g. Democritus, say about the number of different sorts of atoms? Did they assume four sorts, corresponding to the four elements (earth, water, air, fire, water)? Any ...
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Logic as a (bad) model language

Can someone name the most well known philosophers to explicitly put forward an idea along the lines that formal systems can only be used descriptively, not prescriptively - that they're just a model, ...
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47 views

Is postmodernism pro or against abrahamic religion?

Sorry for the long text, but I need to explain my thoughts well. When it is said that postmodernism gives equal space to all forms of thought, many people think it means they are giving space to ...
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2answers
82 views

Element Earth in ancient Greece

Assuming that it is somehow clear what the ancient Greeks saw in their mind's eye when they talked about the elements (substances) Air, Water and Fire, I wonder what they had in mind when they talked ...
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257 views

Is Western Philosophy Inherently Patriarchal and Mono-racial? [closed]

Philosophy has always been a powerful social institution, even before the Athenian “Golden Age” and its professionalization over the last few centuries. Still, many give a deflationary account of its ...
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34 views

Was there support for panpsychism among the Romantic poets?

Phillip Pullman, author of the His Dark Materials trilogy and vocal critic of religion, is a supporter of panpsychism, the doctrine that consciousness arises because every inanimate particle actually ...
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Viewpoints of how the law should apply to authorities

When it comes to the question as to what extent authorities in a state should be bound by the laws of the state (which they often make themselves), there seem to be two main viewpoints, one of them ...
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Have professional philosophers contributed to other fields in the last 20 years?

Here are some quotes from Scott Aaronson's interview: progress in math and science — think of natural selection, Godel’s and Turing’s theorems, relativity and quantum mechanics — has repeatedly ...
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61 views

Why did hindus build lots of temples on mountain tops ?

In most places in India ,many temples are built on mountain tops. These temples are often grand in design with lots of stone masonry work along with elobarate designs on pillars, plus stories and ...
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60 views

What were the 'costs' in completeness in formulating ZFC in first-order logic?

Wikipedia on [2nd order-logic] states: Predicate logic was primarily introduced to the mathematical community by C. S. Peirce, who coined the term second-order logic and whose notation is most ...
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56 views

What are the ramifications of the limitations of ZFC set theory?

In the Wikipedia article on Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory says that the theory sets out to formalize a notion of sets such that "all entities in the universe of discourse are such sets." It goes on to ...
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70 views

Did Nietzsche plagiarize Stirner?

There has been some fuss about the main ideas of Nietzsche's philosophy and Stirner's main work The Ego and Its Own even if Nietzsche usually attributes to Schopenhauer the main influence of his work. ...
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168 views

what lies beyond absurdity?

What should I read to break out of the endless loop that brings me back to the absurdity of (my?) perceived reality? (I'm not talking on a human scale but on an endless time scale) If the question has ...
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2answers
116 views

Are the Efforts to Fuse Philosophy and Pop Culture Superficial?

The state of our aesthetic and consumer-based economy has brought philosophy to a transitional stage at many levels. Many wonder what will be its future or where philosophy should go from here. It is ...
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55 views

What does philosophy exactly do? [closed]

I need your help understanding philosophy. For some reason, I'm not understanding the objective of this subject. Frankly, I only had 1 semester of philosophy so maybe it isn't enough to really ...
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41 views

Is there a pantheistic religion built by Xenophanes?

In my philosophical overview book its said that Xenophanes was the first to criticize the greek polytheism. He concluded that there can only be one god. My book also says that this god is omnipresent ...
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64 views

Why was there a philosophical outbreak around 600BC?

I finally passed the first chapters of my pretty old (1961) Philosophy Overview book and found a nice compilation of what happened around the time 600 BC in different parts of the world: 550 BC: ...
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352 views

Source for “The world is beautiful, but has a disease called man”?

It seems resonant with certain elements of his philosophy, and is generally attributed to Nietzsche, but I cannot seem to find the precise source anywhere. I was struck, in passing, by the variety ...
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65 views

Objective reality vs. illusion in Descartes' time

Descartes' argument for god includes his idea of "objective reality", id est, clear and distinct perception implies existence. Considering his own scientific bent of mind, I'm curious to know what he ...
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64 views

Question Concerning A Line From Empedocles Works

Here is the paragraph containing the line to which I referred in the title: The powers spread over the body are constricted, and many afflictions burst in and dull their meditations. After ...
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What did Aristotle mean by λόγος in the phrase «ὁ…κατὰ τοὔνομα λόγος τῆς οὐσίας ἕτερος»?

In the beginning of his Categories, Aristotle wrote, Ὁμώνυμα λέγεται ὧν ὄνομα μόνον κοινόν, ὁ δὲ κατὰ τοὔνομα λόγος τῆς οὐσίας ἕτερος, οἷον ζῷον ὅ τε ἄνθρωπος καὶ τὸ γεγραμμένον τούτων γὰρ ὄνομα ...
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Are Axiomatic systems derived from Law?

Axiomatic systems arose in Greece & India in Geometry and Language, the exemplary texts being Euclids Elements and Paninis Ashtadyayi (grammar). Now, when one considers the idea of Law: Law ...
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331 views

What is the difference between an 'idea' and a 'concept'?

What is the difference between an 'idea' and a 'concept'? Has a distinction between the two terms been settled and accepted by most modern philosophers?
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45 views

Is determinism a condition for physics?

Here, Physics is expressed in mathematical equations. The relation between the various physical entities referenced by the equation is determined exactly. This is just as true of Hiesenbergs ...
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120 views

Why did Thales say the water is the originating principle, according to Russell?

If I remember Russells Short History of Western Philosophy correctly, Russell unequivocally maintains that Thales was the first philosopher of note. He said: The world is made of water Russell ...
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60 views

Is correlationism Kantian or post-Kantian?

In Speculative Realism, Correlationism is defined as the term linking Thinking and Being. Is the term original to this movement or picked up from post-Kantian thinking?
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141 views

What did Leibniz mean by saying this is the 'best of all possible worlds'?

This was famously satirised by Voltaire in Candide. But what did Leibniz mean by this? My intuitive understanding is this must be due to Leibniz's attempt at the problem of evil in Christian ...
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88 views

Why could Wittgenstein say that men had an idea for the law of least action?

Wittgenstein says in the Tractatus: 6.3211 Men had indeed an idea that there must be a 'law of least action', before they knew exactly how it ran. (Here, as always, what is certain a priori proves ...
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Why did Socrates consider the donkey to be a perverse animal?

In the Phaedo, Plato has Socrates saying (and Cebes agreeing with him) that: Well, those who have cultivated gluttony or selfishness or drunkenness, instead of taking pains to avoid them, are ...
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207 views

Did any specific philosophy contribute to the world wars?

I understand how, for example, nationalism and imperialism can be said to have been causes/contributing factors behind World War 1 and how the Great Depression was a cause behind World War 2. Are ...
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199 views

Descartes and Montaigne

My history professor recently told us that Michel de Montaigne—who I had never heard of before—had many of Descartes's ideas before Descartes did and that most of Descartes's arguments were not very ...
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243 views

The elusive missing page 57 from Nozick's dissertation

I have painstakingly scanned (as in: put on a scanner to make a PDF) 352 pages of a hard copy version of Nozick's 1963 dissertation The Normative Theory of Individual Choice. I don't have page 57. I ...
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94 views

The grave of the famous philosopher William of Ockham [closed]

Do you know anything about the grave of the famous philosopher Occam? I'm looking for a photo gravestones or the place where the grave is. I know only that he died in Munich.
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144 views

Hellenistic schools of philosophy as therapies

Martha C. Nussbaum argues in The Therapy of Desire: Theory and Practice in Hellenistic Ethics that all three major Hellenistic schools (Epicureanism, Stoicism, Skeptics) shared a practical, ...
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134 views

When did the West acquired a concept of “mindfulness”/“being present at the moment”?

Was the concept of "mindfulness"/"being present at the moment" only known to the Indians/Easterns and the Greeks did not learn about it? Did the ancient Greek have a concept for mindfulness? Did they ...
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86 views

Books about a broad introduction of philosophy [duplicate]

I am a graduate student of Informatics. Studying mathematical logic I've just started discovering it connection to philosophy. Following this way I started reading something about old and modern ...
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45 views

Did Aristotle write or comment on any mystical or esoteric doctrines?

It's quite clear that Plato in some of his later dialogues tended towards mysticism - for example his cosmology in the Timaeus. Did Aristotle, do anything similar?
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115 views

Has analytical or continental philosophy had the more profound or greater impact in the intellectual world at large?

I mean outside of its own discipline but also outside of the Anglo-European world. This question was provoked by the introduction to the Routledge History of Western Philosophy - Vol 10 - Continental ...
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123 views

Are there any listings of Plato's dialogues in internal chronological order?

Traditionally, the dialogues of Plato have been listed in the order in which Plato is thought to have composed them, because it's believed that Plato presented a more accurate picture of Socrates' ...
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97 views

Was Newtons corpuscular theory of light influenced by that of Democritus?

Democritus theory of perception hypothesised that eidola were atom-thin images of an object carried into the eye. Of course Newton was a prominent defender of a corpuscular theory of light, as first ...
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72 views

How does democritus account for eidola in terms of his atomic theory, if in fact he does?

Eidola, is the peeling away of images from an object that then enters the eye in Democritus theory of optics. However given his atomic theory, it seems puzzlng that he doesn't attempt to explain sight ...
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136 views

What “driving forces” have being introduced for human kind during history?

AMAIK: Freud cites libido as the driving force of human being (the underlying part of id) Nietzsche introduced Will to power as the driving force behind human actions And here, pain & pleasure ...
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What's the point of pataphysics

It doesn't seem serious, and many consider it not to be serious. However, at the same time, there are institutes for it. Isn't that like having a department for silly talk?
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Sources for Epicurus and the history of medicine

I am researching the history of medical philosophy (nursing in particular). A professor recommended the writings of Epicurus. I cannot find any sources directly related to this relationship. The ...
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Which active movements in philosophy today might be aligned with “continental” interests?

Which active movements in philosophy today might be considered allied or aligned with "continental" interests? (Related to this question.)