The history of philosophy is the study of philosophical ideas and concepts through time. Issues specifically related to history of philosophy might include (but are not limited to): How can changes in philosophy be accounted for historically? What drives the development of thought in its historical ...

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Why so many disagreements? [on hold]

Why are there so many disagreements in philosophy? As a case study we will use the one of anti realism, and nietzshe. Here the stanford article breaks down his meta ethics into two strands: The ...
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43 views

Logical Positivism, Linguistic Philosophy, then came what?

In this interview with philosopher Bernard Williams interviewer Bryan Magee suggests: Logical Positivism was the prevailing orthodoxy of one generation, Linguistic Philosophy of the next. Is ...
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68 views

Why does water appear to be a common creative principle across Indo-European culture?

Thales (one of earliest Greek philosophers) said, as reported by Hippolytus, in the Refutation of all Heresies the archê (principle) and the end of all things is water. All things acquire firmness ...
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65 views

Were there prominent secular philosophers in the European middle ages? If so, who?

I asked this question on history exchange here: http://history.stackexchange.com/questions/17462/were-there-prominent-secular-philosophers-in-the-european-middle-ages-if-so-wh And they suggested I ...
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91 views

Did Friedrich Nietzsche believe in “the truth”?

It is well known that Friedrich Nietzsche was very condemnatory of the objective truth, however, while analyzing his words, it is difficult to ascertain whether or not he believes in the truth at all. ...
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105 views

Is sophistry useful?

I read from Lazlo Versenyi's Socratic Humanism (p. 1-72, 1963). "The first part of this book offers a thoughtful and provocative defense of the Sophists" (D. A. Hyland, The Origin of Philosophy: Its ...
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In what way(s) does popular New Atheism fail to be philosophical?

I've seen some derision against the popular New Atheism movement, in particular against Richard Dawkins, Christopher Hitchens, and Sam Harris (particularly interesting since he makes a big deal that ...
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1answer
125 views

What are some major breakthroughs in the field of philosophy? [closed]

I am sincerely interested in events or discoveries that can be thought as definitive game changers in the course of philosophy. Russell's Principia Mathematica and its failure, if it can be thought of ...
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2answers
143 views

Where does Quine say logic should have no ontological presuppositions?

I'm sure I recall Quine saying in various places that one distinction between logic and set theory is that logic should have no ontological presuppositions (or, at most should presuppose some thing ...
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3answers
104 views

History before philosophy

I am interested in becoming fluent in general philosophy. I recognize that it is a massive area of study. I bought a book called introduction to western philosophy by Bertrand Russell, but I find ...
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18 views

What is the lore of the ascription of divine attributes engendering the problem of evil

In the philosophy of religion, or philosophical theology, there is the well known Theodicé problem after Leibniz, viz.: How can the omnscience, omnipotence and maximal benevolence of God be reconciled ...
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26 views

Did Hume personally believe his own philosophy?

Could someone please verify the following anecdote I paraphrase below regarding Hume? Someone asked Hume if he personally believed in his own philosophy, and he replied that he didn't but that his ...
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295 views

Are there any recognized modern eastern or Asian philosophers out there? Is eastern philosophy taken seriously in the 21st century?

Philosophy has roots in both the eastern and the western world. Undoubtedly, there is a big difference between the two. Eastern traditions are more prescriptive and religious and less formal. Western ...
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2answers
71 views

Did early analytic philosophers reject metaphysics?

Did early analytic philosophers reject metaphysics? Or did this rejection only come about with the rise of the logical positivists? By early analytic philosophers i mean, Frege, Russell, and Moore, ...
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7answers
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Reasons for believing in Monism

Why do any serious philosophers at all believe that only one thing exists in the universe? What are the reasons they give? And are there any serious philosophers that believe no thing exists in the ...
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46 views

Hippies. Flower children. What is pivot of this movement?

I'm asking my teacher of Philosophy in University: "What is a pivot of this movement?" He said: "Nothing! Nothing what can be named as philosophy." What can community of stackexchange add to my ...
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5answers
187 views

The problem of evil in secular philosophy

Does the existence of evil impinge on atheist philosophy, such that it could be seen as a "problem" with, and not just within, these philosophies in a similar way too theism? Could e.g. Marxism be ...
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3answers
71 views

New and original philosophy [closed]

Does philosophy have to be original to break new ground, does a philosopher have to do philosophy in a new way if they are to create a new better way of thinking about a problem? i.e. can problems ...
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2answers
56 views

Literature similar to Cicero's “On the Ideal Orator”?

I've been reading various speeches and works by Cicero, and while reading On the Ideal Orator, I was wondering whether any other philosophers (especially relatively contemporary ones) also wrote on ...
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60 views

Belief Pathways (Social Doxology)

In the social psychology literature, there is a lot of discussion about the pathways through which one achieves social belief formation (i.e. persuasion, coercion, etc.). These differ from those ...
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157 views

Why and how personal philosophies of certain thinkers became recognized as “classical” main stream approaches?

Why and how personal philosophies of certain thinkers (starting from Ancient Greek ones and up to modern ones) became recognized as "classical" main stream approaches ?
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1answer
43 views

Who are historical proponents of moral anti-realism?

I was wondering about the history of moral anti-realism. It seems to me that realism has been the dominant view since Plato, with anti-realism being given systematic attention only in the last 100 ...
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2answers
72 views

Does “subjective attractiveness” have a place in philosophy?

I've just started reading Christian Apologetics: A Comprehensive Case for Biblical Faith by Douglas Groothuis. He says on page 25: This definition of apologetics invokes both rational legitimacy ...
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37 views

Where is philosophy today [closed]

Basically I'd like to know which are the main philosophical schools today (meaning maybe the last 5-10 or even 15-20 years), where they come from and, if there is a reasonable answer, where are they ...
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146 views

Why do we have a problem about understanding the concept of the “empty set”?

   The title seems quite bit more generalized, but I'm saying about the philosophers and mathematicians in the past who discussed about the concept of nothing, or the empty set. I'm ...
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4answers
285 views

Was Jesus a philosopher?

Reasoning that Jesus was a philosopher could come from Wikipedia's definition: He has made contributions in one or more current fields of philosophy (Ethics), which has to qualify him as philosopher. ...
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50 views

Why has cynicism acquired a negative connotation? [closed]

It seems to me that people criticize others for being cynical. But why is cynicism so bad? Upon reflection, it is easy to see that a lot of people are not very trustworthy. So, I think everyone is ...
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76 views

When does the philosophy of a newly created (academic) discipline typically arise?

I occasionally spend some of my spare time reading through the questions and answers of interest on these SE websites, and I recently came across this question: Can a certain branch of philosophy ...
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3answers
145 views

Why are Free Will discussions always framed as a question of “free will” rather than “free choice” (of action)?

In debates or discussion regarding the question of whether or not human beings (or any other being) has the ability to decide for themselves what to do, the term invariably used is free will. However, ...
2
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2answers
68 views

Philosophy of the lymphatic system

If neurophilosophy is a legitimate from of philosophy why don’t we have philosophies pertaining to various other sub-personal processes/systems: autonomic, vestibular, and proprioceptive? Why not ...
3
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1answer
84 views

Who Invented the Modal Fallacy?

The Modal Fallacy is the best known of the fallacies related to Modal Logic. But, it is difficult to find the name of the logician who established the modal fallacy. Was it Aristotle? And, how does ...
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25 views

Chrysippus and Strict Implicature

In A History of Ancient Philosophy, Karsten Friis Johansen claims that Chrysippus offers a theory of truth for conditionals that is a version of strict implicature and intensional semantics. However, ...
3
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1answer
40 views

Classical and Medieval Scholars on Modal Logic

Who most influenced the development of modal logic prior to the nineteenth century - aside from the Aristoteleans, Dialecticals, and Stoics of course?
3
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1answer
40 views

Who were the major innovators of new types of syllogisms?

Who were the major innovators of new kinds of syllogisms (i.e. introduced disjunctive syllogisms, etc) in the ancient and medieval periods aside from Aristotle, Theophrastus, the Stoics, and ...
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1answer
68 views

What did Einstein make of Bohmian Mechanics?

Its well-known that Einstein was uncomfortable about the anti-realist and non-deterministic status of Quantum Mechanics, declaring that God does not play dice However, a realist and ...
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173 views

Did Thales really argue this?

Neil deGrasse Tyson in “Deeper, Deeper, Deeper Still” (Cosmos) says something to the following effect. The ancient Greek philosopher Thales argued that natural events such as weather patterns ...
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1answer
73 views

(Where) did Leibniz write “Sans les mathématiques on ne pénètre point…”?

Sans les mathématiques on ne pénètre point au fond de la philosophie. Sans la philosophie on ne pénètre point au fond des mathématiques. Sans les deux on ne pénètre au fond de rien. The above ...
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2answers
114 views

Was Marcus Aurelius the first philosopher-king?

Marcus Aurelius, well-known for his Meditations, in the second century AD, was a Stoic philosopher and also emperor of the Roman empire. Plato, in his Republic, advised that the ideal rulers of his ...
6
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2answers
107 views

Which was the first philosopher to think of ET?

Looking at the sky, we seen the moon, stars, sun and planets. Their motion have been plotted since Early Babylonia, and gods and godesses have been associated with them. When, so we are told, men ...
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6answers
758 views

Who was the earliest known philosopher?

Who was the earliest known philosopher? Is it Confucius or Thales they were both around same time.
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2answers
59 views

Greek political philosophy and theory?

I'm interested in political philosophy, and I was hoping to become rounded in Greek political theory and philosophy, in hopes of moving on to Roman political philosophy with a bit of context. My ...
5
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1answer
109 views

Major Questions resolved or unresolved in Philosophy

Is there any collection of the major Questions that have driven philosophical thought through the ages? I'm not strictly referring to the branches of philosophy but the arguments therein. Thanks
5
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1answer
100 views

What were Cicero's original contributions to philosophy?

While reading history of philosophy books, Cicero's name often comes up. However I remain unclear of what if any are his original contributions to the philosophy of that period. I know that he was an ...
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3answers
142 views

Whats the earliest documented instance of Buddhist Philosophy on European thought?

Whats the earliest recorded instance of Buddhist thought in a European context - say a translation. I know that Schopenhauer (1788-1860) read the Bhagavad Gita - but this is a Hindu text and not a ...
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36 views

How did Antiquity deal with the disappearance of the Transcendent?

In Western Philosophy, Existentialism heeding Nietzches call was the first philosophy that dealt with the loss of the transcendent in a formal way. Whereas prior to him, it anchored, or rather was ...
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447 views

How inaccurate is a History of Western Philosophy by Bertrand Russell

I finished reading 'A History of Western Philosophy' by Bertrand Russell a while ago. Not being an expert by any stretch I thought it was very good (informative, accessible, enjoyable etc..). But I ...
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1answer
2k views

What does Foucault mean by discursive practices or discursive constitutions in definition of discourse?

Foucault uses the concept of discursive practices or discursive constitutions in the definition of discourse. What does he mean by this concept? How are discursive practices different from ...
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369 views

What does Spivak mean exactly in her paper “can the subaltern speak”?

What does G. Spivak mean by epistemic violence in her essay "Can the subaltern speak"? What I understand by her paper is that intellectuals in Europe and western countries control the kind of ...
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53 views

History of determinism

Does determinism have its roots in logic? When was determinism as a discrete discipline first recorded? I am just interested in the historical aspect at the moment.
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160 views

What did Democritus talk about when he talked about “atoms”?

What did the ancient atomists, e.g. Democritus, say about the number of different sorts of atoms? Did they assume four sorts, corresponding to the four elements (earth, water, air, fire, water)? Any ...