Knowledge is a familiarity with someone or something, which can include facts, information, descriptions, or skills acquired through experience or education.

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Why do some philosophers argue that we do not know, a priori, that something thinks

The Cartesian argument seems to explicate the fact that I necessarily know that something thinks, and that I necessarily know that something thinks even if I don't checking the world to verify whether ...
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How do we acquire knowledge?

Lately, I have come to the sad realisation that I know virtually nothing. This understanding was only fully realised for me when I looked back on my own education thus far; in spite of having just ...
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how to deal with “the unknown unknown” [closed]

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GiPe1OiKQuk alot of people make fun of Rumsfeld for the "unknown unknowns", but i'm wondering how a person like him would start to try to get his hands around the ...
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Why are some communication failures regarded as important opinions in philosophy?

As a newbie here (though not on SO or on the net before that) I am surprised at the number of questions about what some philosopher meant. Examples, just picked from the time point of writing this ...
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Why does western law treat criminal and civil violations so differently [closed]

Example 1, criminal act: You find a set of keys on the ground and use them to obtain access to a nearby xyz, taking it away for your own use. You make no effort to pay for the xyz. Example 2, ...
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109 views

What is the prerequisite knowledge for reading philosophers of the Enlightenment?

I want to read philosophical texts, however I have not done so because I am daunted by the prospect of it. I guess this stems from the nature of ideas, that is they are usually in dialogue with other ...
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111 views

Will philosophy ever have a consensus on all the issues?

There seems to be a lot of disagreement of important questions of philosophy. A lot of consensus has been achieved in the history of philosophy, but will there ever be consensus of the entire field ...
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246 views

Does everything have a cause/reason?

I was reading on arguments for the existence of God and came across the Principle of Sufficient Reason (PSR) which describes that everything must have a sufficient cause/reason to exist. Looking at ...
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39 views

Is it justified to assess the probability of a claim if the claim is unverifiable or do we have to say the probability is inconclusive?

Suppose there is a claim that outside the observable universe (assuming that there is an outside, other than that we don't know anything about outside) there exists a substance A. Can we conclude that ...
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123 views

Popper, Nietzsche and knowledge

In many works of Karl Popper, he says, quoting Xenophanes, that all human knowledge is only conjectural, that modern science will never produce a true knowledge. The german philosopher, Friedrich ...
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Aside from logical representations, what are other ways philosophers approach representing knowledge?

Of course different arguments can be neatly spelled out in logical symbols, but logic isn't sufficient for all kinds of knowledge. I know the issue is represented in different ontologies in the ...
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23 views

What is Brandom's notion of implicitness?

Robert Brandom seems to have a very distinct notion of implicitness when he says things like: For while that vocabulary is not itself descriptive vocabulary, its use is implicit in the use of ...
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Has philosophy progressed since Kant? [closed]

Kant reasoned that we can never know "the thing in itself" since all knowledge is acquired via the apparatuses by which humans perceive, understand, and reason. Hence much of science and "human ...
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Could 'ought' be defined as sentimentalism?

The traditional definition of ought is "moral obligation" as defined by multiple online dictionaries. Some authors, like Harris, have defined ought as maximizing expected well being (a fancy way of ...
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We know substances by means of their accidents?

Where does Aristotle or St. Thomas Aquinas say we know substances by means of their accidents? For example: To know the substance of an apple, I first have to sense its quantity and qualities: shape, ...
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What exactly is the persuasive power behind Jackson's “Mary's Room” argument?

The knowledge argument (also known as Mary's room or Mary the super-scientist) is a philosophical thought experiment proposed by Frank Jackson in his article "Epiphenomenal Qualia" (1982) and extended ...
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does Gettier present cases of knowledge that are not cases of justified true belief?

now i know Gettier presents cases of JTB that are not cases of knowledge (e in case I, h in case II). but the other way round? for a proposition p not JTB, we need either p not true or S doesn't ...
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Are we spending too much time asking hard to answer questions while we'd be better off asking more productive ones?

I've heard this on several occasions and I think it is true if we're spending too much of our time on them. It might not be true for some people, but then, how do they decide it isn't true for them? ...
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Why to know how to multiply numbers does not mean to know the result?

What is the difference between these two situations? A subject thinks she knows somebody's name. However, when asked she cannot recall it immediately. After some efforts, the name is coming and she ...
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Why is knowing not a mental state?

"There is a tendency to think of knowledge as a mental state. Now I am supposed to know my own mental states. If I say I have a certain mental state and do not have it, then I have told a lie. But ...
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A trivial response to Gettier problems

What problems arise in responding to Gettier problems with an assertion "the formal definition of knowledge, as justified true belief, does not need to exactly correspond to intuitive notions of ...
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Is this the most accepted definition of knowledge today?

I found this Euler diagram representing a definition of knowledge problematic. First, propositions should only express beliefs. When there is no belief, there should be no proposition. But the ...
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What are some examples of “data” in philosophy?

I was trying to figure out what the word "data" means. The dictionary even provides a special entry for philosophy: things known or assumed as facts, making the basis of reasoning or calculation. ...
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Propositional knowledge vs. Procedural knowledge vs Knowledge by acquaintance

I am looking for a reference which explains the differences between these conceptions of knowledge (and potentially others). Ideally, I prefer an academic paper authored by a respected scholar.
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Propositional and Other Forms of Knowledge

Propositional knowledge is often described as knowledge that such-and-such is true. This stands in contrast to other forms of knowledge, such as knowledge how to such-and-such. What term is most ...
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Can a non-falsifiable belief ever be justified (besides for tautologies)?

Probably thanks to Popper, a scientific theory would never be taken seriously if it wasn't as least in some way falsifiable. Without getting into the nitty-gritty of the many theories of ...
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How should we understand the oracle's dilemma in making a prediction?

Let's look at a thought experiment: There is an oracle who has exact knowledge of the state of a deterministic universe, so her predictions about the universe's future have always turned out to be ...
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“What don't you know?” - A common question

When asked, "What don't you know?", what do, or should you, respond with? As there is no way to tell what you don't know (let's take for example, "x"), how can you say "I don't know X", as you've not ...
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Is it paradoxical to simultaneously assert that a proposition is true and that the speaker does not know it?

Is it a paradox to assert "1+1=2 is true, but I don't know it"? I just thought of this chestnut myself.
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authoritative answers [closed]

With all due respect, why ask a question without knowing the quality of the responder? It may be a waste of time if the responding party has not yet been through a period of transformation so their ...
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is knowledge an impediment for seeing things the way they are? is silent observation the true instrument of comprehension? [closed]

when we are in a state of not knowing there is much more sensitivity, choiceless awareness, impartial observation, it seems to me.its knowledge the cloud of belief, conclusions preventing the true ...
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What is the purpose of learning?

This is a question I've been thinking about the last week or so, and this question on Meta SF got me itching to ask it somewhere. Oh, look! Philosophy SE! What is the purpose of learning? By ...
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Isn't a Gettier case just lack of adequate justification?

As I understand it a Gettier case happens when there is a true belief that is justified but only by luck. Common scenarios include looking at a broken watch and it just happens to be the time on ...
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What is the absolute ultimate subject (like math, literature, etc)? [closed]

Seems like all subjects are branches of more general subject. Pretty much all sciences seem to find their roots in physics but physics is just math. There are many branches of math but still all just ...
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Please help me understand Huxley, agnosticism and christianity

There are people who say "I don't think we can ever know whether God exists or not but I would like to believe he exists." Are they agnostic theists? Knowledge and belief are two different things ...
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Through The Internet, do we have access to all human scientific knowledge so far [closed]

When I say The Internet, i mean all different types of networks be it private, public, governmental etc... all of them. EDIT: by human knowledge I'm not talking about what people had for breakfast or ...
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Approximately what is the proportion of philosophers who support each of the main responses to scepticism?

There are lots of ways we can respond to the sceptic: the Moorean approach, externalism, contextualism or deny closure. (There maybe other common responses I've forgotten.) Very roughly, what ...
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Where does meaning fit into the DIKW hierarchy? [closed]

I mean, there's obviously no "M" in the DIKW, so it isn't a point on the spectrum that is discerned by the model. But where would it be placed, if it were to be recognized? I was thinking about this, ...
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How much is our understanding of Kant's Categorical Framework (published in German in 1781) obscured by translation and basic semantics?

Upon reading about and later researching [1] Kant's famous Categorical Framework, which is included as a key part of his classic Critique of Pure Reason (1781), I am struck by aspects that are quite ...
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The elusive missing page 57 from Nozick's dissertation

I have painstakingly scanned (as in: put on a scanner to make a PDF) 352 pages of a hard copy version of Nozick's 1963 dissertation The Normative Theory of Individual Choice. I don't have page 57. I ...
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Is DNA a database about the environment? The concept of Knowledge applied to bio-data

Living creatures have DNA that basically tell how the organism should be constructed. This DNA evolves in response to the environment by trial and error. For example, a mammal living in cold ...
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How can we know some characters are not belongs to that language? [closed]

OK, I assume most of the readers here understand only English. From this assumed start point, consider then the follow scenario: If I were to show you two Chinese characters, one pair is correctly ...
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How can I develop my critical thinking skills?

I am a freshmen engineering student going to college. I want to learn how to think critically and become a critical thinker and a sharp arguer. I am interested in philosophy, because I am curious ...
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is science against philosophy? [closed]

I am asking this because I've seen articles, graphics, and quotes of science against philosophy. I believe Hawking have said something about philosophy being killed by science, this article: ...
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Is questioning the execution of knowledge still epistemology or another branch of philosophy?

Suppose I have a question that is concerned not with 'what is knowledge' or 'how we acquire knowledge,' but instead how we are able to implement it, are we still talking about epistemology or about ...
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What does it mean to have a sense of geometry innate to us - if that is in fact the case?

Most people, if asked whether they know any geometry, will answer no; but most, if not all, can recognise a straight line, a right angle, or a circle; of course they will not be able to define them as ...
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How to distinguish between 'a priori/posteriori' and 'analytic/synthetic'?

What I think I know A priori knowledge that can be gained by contemplating only the meaning of a statement's words. A posteriori knowledge can be gained only by comparing a statement's meaning with ...
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What is value of a philosphical argument/theory when a conclusion can never be reached?

I have seen several questions and discussions recently on this forum concerning p-zombies, whether or not what we call consciousness is a tangible entity or merely an illusion or elaborate scheme ...
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I'm running into this weirdness using the concept of certainty. Why?

I cannot be certain of anything. (Assumption.) I am not certain that I cannot be certain of anything. By asserting (2), I am certain that I am not certain that I cannot be certain of anything. I can ...
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Is modern information technology fundamentally changing the way humans acquire and process knowledge?

It would appear that in the contemporary world, it is hardly necessarily for the individual to 'know' anything. Far more important is the ability to cull knowledge from readily available repositories ...