Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the essence of things, of the fundamental nature of being and the world and the principles that organize the universe. Metaphysics is supposed to answer the question "What is the nature of reality?"

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To what kind of philosophy belongs the statement that you can't be a physical body because it is a projection of the mind?

I think it is a kind of idealism like that of Berkeley. But can this statement also belong to phenomenology of Husserl or of the philosophy of Kant or is there perhaps a better philosopher for this?
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πίστις (Faith/Conviction) In Plato's Apology

In Plato's Apology, a main question is that between belief and knowledge, between the pretense of Socrates' accusers and the simple truth of Socrates, between the laws of men and the laws that ...
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Why are most of us standing poised at the edge of brilliance, and haunted by the knowledge of our proximity? [on hold]

‘Most of us stand poised at the edge of brilliance, haunted by the knowledge of our proximity, yet still demonstrably on the wrong side of the line.’ Alain de Botton, The Pleasures and Sorrows of ...
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Can love be regarded as a purely chemical reaction? [on hold]

Can love be regarded as a purely chemical reaction? If yes, is there a reason that it shouldn't be? Please answer beyond the scope of a simple mind-body dichotomy.
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Metaphysically, what does it mean to “make a decision”?

In the freewill debate, a difference is made between metaphysical/libertarian free will, i.e. where an agent is free to choose among many possible outcomes, and the eventual outcome is caused by the ...
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48 views

Can abstract entities be destroyed?

Can abstract entities be destroyed, in a way analogous to smashing an object? e.g. a musical composition, or a myth. Clearly, they can be completely forgotten etc., but are there any other ways they ...
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58 views

Who came up with many worlds theory based on free will

The idea is that under 'normal' conditions we do not get uncertainty principle since inanimate things do not make choices or 'observe' and work purely under deterministic principles, but the moment ...
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Why is the third man argument seen as so decisive?

Why is the third man argument in Plato's Parmenides seen as a more or less decisive refutation of Platonic realism (Plato's theory of forms)? The argument rests on the assumption that self-...
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What does it mean for something to exist?

When we say something exists, what do we mean by X? Specifically, my question is about whether there's something more primitive than saying something exists. In mathematics, existence is asserted by ...
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Unity of Apperception vs. Self Consciousness in Critique of Pure Reason

What is the difference between Unity of Apperception and Self- consciousness? From what I gather so far, Unity of Apperception is a particular part of Self-Consciousness in that UoA brings to ...
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40 views

How the air and earth elements have been seen in several cosmologies?

In the classical philosophy, air is hot and wet, while earth is cold and dry. In the Indian teachings, both of these are rather cold; air is dry and earth is wet. These are merely examples. I'd like ...
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Euler's 1746 philosophy paper

In 1746, Euler, a famous mathematician, published what I believe to be a little-known philosophy paper. It seems interesting, but it is difficult for me to follow as I lack adequate philosophy ...
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What is the ontological status of a story plot?

A stage play, a movie, and a comic book can all have the same plot. And this despite being very different mediums physically, and even if they are set in completely different fictional universes. ...
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does exclusion + supervenience + pairing necessitate reductionism?

If one accepts the exclusion argument (no physical event has a non-physical cause), the supervenience argument (no mental event causes any other mental event), and the pairing problem (no physical ...
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61 views

Can kantian categories only be applicated to objects given by the senses?

The question is inspired by the comments of this answer by @PédeLeão and I think it deserves a question of its own to have room for clarifying this. Possible candidates Kant, in German, has pretty (...
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On a paradox of existence

There is a famous question by Einstein which was reported by his biographer, the physicist Abraham Pais, and which expresses his concern with quantum physics: We often discussed his notions on ...
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150 views

What is nothing

How can nothing be real? The basic concept of nothing is the lack of something, so in that statement alone it makes it something. The bible says that in the beginning there was a void and nothing ...
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Should we allow metaphysical explanations as a possibility in scientific inquiry? [closed]

For example,suppose that the universe was in fact created by a supernatural god as told in some religions. Suppose for the moment that this scenario is the true one. Now, Rejecting the possibility ...
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Two Kinds of Understanding

"Kant concludes §17 by contrasting the human understanding, which requires an act of synthesis to establish its unity, with another possible kind of understanding. This would be an understanding in ...
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Can more than 2 things be in direct opposition?

What I mean by this, is something which is exactly opposite to say both positive and negative, just as much as the two are in opposition to each other. This idea arose and evolved when I was thinking ...
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Can anything be truer than true?

The Wikipedia page of Philosophy of Science says, "This discipline overlaps with metaphysics, ontology, and epistemology, for example, when it explores the relationship between science and truth such ...
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Is Time just an idea?

All the things we perceive undergo changes as time goes by. Even if we didn't do anything, Time does 'its work'. For communication we use this word as an idea. If 'Time' were an idea it couldn't ...
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Unity is more fundamental than synthesis

Unity is more fundamental than synthesis, since it is a component of the concept of a unified manifold, which is what synthesis brings about. The unity presupposed by synthesis is not the category of ...
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Can one be a Modal Realist without also having to incorporate the existence of impossible worlds?

I know Modal Realism well enough itself, and have read many of the objections (and subsequent responses) that David Lewis himself took up in relation to the philosophical position. My question is, do ...
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Aristotelian Argument Against Theory of Forms

I'm new to philosophical studies, my background is in mathematics. I've just read some of Aristotle's Metaphysics today, and would like critique on a brief argument I wrote against Plato's Forms ...
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Philosophy of weirdness [closed]

I have curiosity to know is there any probability that superheroes exist. So my question is, If "many worlds theory" is proven does that mean all superheroes would exist?
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Is there a loophole in Kitcher's argument for the inadequacy of the law of association?

In Kant's Transcendental Psychology (hereafter, KTP), Patricia Kitcher gives an insightful argument for the inadequacy of the law of association, which she asserts was Hume's primary explanation for ...
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How can there be idealism without God?

In Berkeley's idealism God holds the world together, enabling us to avoid chaos and experience a shared, orderly reality. But Schopenhauer is an idealist and an atheist. How can we then explain the ...
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Fault in Leibniz's counter argument to Absolute Space

Melamed and Lin contend that for Leibniz, Leibniz thinks that space and time cannot be substances or anything else absolute and must ultimately be a system of relations that obtain between bodies. ...
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How can something non-physical exist?

One sees arguments for the existence of non-physical entities such as God, qualia, Plato's forms, objective ethical truths, etc... But what does it mean for something non-physical to exist? It ...
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Do the future and the past exist?

It is not very odd in spiritual teachings to deny the existence of the future and the past, there is only 'now'. But are there philosophers who also denied the existence of the future and past? It ...
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Derrida's “Strategic Bet”

I was wondering if anyone could help me understand what Derrida's "Strategic Bet” is? (from his “Ends of Man”). And also, how do the alternatives in the bet define deconstruction?
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68 views

A discrete time: impact on philosophical aspects

Time is a major topic in philosophy. I wonder if there are philosophical works that have digged into the possibilities and impacts of discrete time instants. Present theories in physics suggest that ...
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Is it possible to prove that time-passing is an illusion? If so how?

There is time as an interval between two events but you could also state that time itself has a certain duration (it passes). Now in physics it is not always very common to see time as something that ...
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Can different varieties of modality be used with existential quantification?

I'm wondering if it makes sense to talk about worlds which aren't this one being real. It seems like you can claim that something possibly exists. Now I'm wondering, because it seems to amount to ...
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Heidegger's idea about 'being'

I was reading Heidegger's Basic Concepts and came across the following quote: "the casting-toward of being and the casting away of being are equally essential" (P. 75) I do understand that only ...
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If metaphysical grounding of beliefs is not necessary what is to logically compel one to believe anything?

'Grounding' is the notion that 'because of X, Y', X being the reason one can accept Y beyond pragmatic considerations. In this way, X and Y are analogous to cause and effect respectively. If it is ...
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Have any metaphysics arguments been critiqued along the lines of Turing Equivalence in computer languages?

I'm interested in those areas of philosophy for which modern theories of information science offer intuitive explanations and useful solutions to questions historically included under the subject of ...
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Something that has an end must have a beginning?

In ancient Hebrew book (http://dafyomireview.com/article.php?docid=398#ch5) dealing with logical proof of creation of the world. The following premise is established PROOF OF SECOND PREMISE - (...
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What is the difference between everyday realism and metaphysical realism?

At an everyday level, we seem to subscribe to a from of strong realism which doesn't leave any room for skepticism. We are certain that individuals who hear voices in their heads or who have ...
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How does a realist account for causation between universals and particulars?

With respect to universals nominalists maintain that there are no universals and only particulars exists. Conversely, realists says that there are universals. Here is a sketch of an argument against ...
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Is the claim that atheism is the null hypothesis invalid because it applies a physical measurement to the metaphysical?

I've heard several people state that: Atheism is the null hypothesis. ie that this null hypothesis can be falsified: if one piece of evidence is found to contradict it, the existence is considered ...
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How would you know if nonobservable entities exist?

Nonphysical entities cannot be observed. Therefore such entities cannot be verified by observation. How could statements like "God exists" be even considered true? Why would anyone appeal to the ...
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Can one be a reductionist without being a materialist?

I always assumed that reductionism was an inherently materialist/physicalist point of view: If one believed that everything can be reduced to the fundamental laws of physics, then by implication, they ...
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Why may I considere Wittgenstein a Kantian thinker with regard to metaphysics?

Wittgenstein is a Kantian philosopher as far as the structure of the Tractatus, as far as the last part (section 6 and comments) are concerned with: that I cannot speak about the subject in the ...
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What kind of philosophical questions are transcendental philosophical questions?

There are a lot of different philosophical questions and I'm interested in knowing what kind of questions are asked in or what kind of questions does transcendental philosophy try to answer. I've ...
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How Can the Unobservable be Verified?

Empirical evaluations and judgments concerning the observable world (e.g. whether or not I'm eating a watermelon right now) are evidently verifiable; you can confirm that I am indeed eating a ...
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Can Humans Maintain a Free Relationship With Technology?

Heidegger argues in the “The Question Concerning Technology” that the essence of technology is a mode of disclosure or revealing, aletheia. However, modern technology has a special character which ...
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Aristotle's efficient causes: How can they make sense?

In the article "Aristotle on Causality" in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy we read: Here Aristotle recognizes four types of things that can be given in answer to a why-question: [...] ...
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What are some real-life applications of metaphysics?

Metaphysics seems to be a field that is almost purely abstract. However, I am also interested in knowing how metaphysics has impacted the real world, if at all.