Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the essence of things, of the fundamental nature of being and the world and the principles that organize the universe. Metaphysics is supposed to answer the question "What is the nature of reality?"

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Time and space – a subject of metaphysics?

The entry metaphysics from SEP (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) also deals with space and time, see chapter 3.2. I am not convinced that metaphysics does contribute with any new insight to the ...
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How does Kant justify the introduction of the noumenon?

Kant introduces the notion of the noumenon in his critical philosophy; he also later demonstrates in his system that solipsism isn't possible. Is the introduction of the noumenon essential to this ...
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Need recommendation for a beginner-friendly philosophy forum

As you may or may not have seen, a metaphysics problem has long been plaguing me, and while I asked that question on this site, the ensuing answers really demanded a longer form of back and forth for ...
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Beginner question: what is metaphysics?

As I understand it, it is common knowledge that the three main branches of philosophy are Epistemology, Metaphysics, and Axiology, and that most or all of philosophy can be put into one of those three ...
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Whole Brain Emulation - what is a being [duplicate]

As we approach the age of artificial intelligence, I was curious about whole brain emulation. If a brain and consciousnesses is uploaded to a computer, is it still the same person, even if it was ...
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In respect of Pyrrho and the late skeptical tradition

How possible is to assume the metaphysical interpretation of Pyrrho's philosophy and still see him as a predecesor of the Sextus skeptical tradition? Isn't any kind of "skeptical spirit" in the ...
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Have David Wolpert's findings really “slammed the door” on scientific determinism?

I recently read an article describing how mathematician/physicist David Wolpert's research closed the door on scientific determinism. I have huge doubts about the implied conclusion, considering the ...
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Witten's philosophy of exceptional nature

In various of his talks and writings, Edward Witten has been revealing -- always in passing -- a philosophical perspective saying that: Since nature (reality) is exceptional in that it has existence, ...
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Universals vs. Facts

I simply do not understand the problem of universals, i.e. I don't understand how it is even a problem. The IEP writes: We can approach the question about the existence of universals from a ...
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Hylomophism as the foundation of matter, how true can this be. explain [closed]

What is hylomophism and how can it be related with matter and form, being and existence
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Are there any strong reasons to still consider logical monism or a “One True Logic” in light of all the non-classical logics that have been developed?

I know there has always been some debate concerning whether or not a certain logical system (like classical logic) is the correct one, especially when it comes to propositional claims about the ...
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What are conceptions of time and space? [closed]

EDITED: First of all i make clear what i need to know. There may be too many theories about time, space and their relations. What i want to know: Is there some conceptions that are taken as MAIN ...
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Can you tell me, PLAINLY, what is the difference between truth and fact? [duplicate]

So...I've been looking for this answer and have answered for myself very simply...I just want to see if others can give a better answer...but I cannot give you my answer because that would be ...
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Does determinism speak for the predetermination of every single event?

I was wondering if determinism is claiming that every single event is predetermined or not. I say every single event isn't, but maybe major events are. Major events as in events that can only take ...
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138 views

Would two identical people ever be able to communicate successfully?

Let's say you know some guy. And you told him that he was going to be copied and both him and the clone moved to an area where there are no external factors. After telling the man this, the man is ...
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2answers
58 views

Perception of the Platonic realm

If the Platonic realm is to exist, can it be perceived if it is to be purely isolated by itself? Rephrased, how is the platonic realm perceived to be? Can it be imagined by itself without reference to ...
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97 views

Books to self-study Immanuel Kant

I am impressed by Kant's moral or nominative laws- hypothetical imperative and categorical imperative as well as the three versions of the categorical imperative. I want to grasp whatever Kant ...
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176 views

Why is the problem of universals a problem?

Philosopher Gonzago Rodriguez-Pereyra defines the very old and well-known "Problem of Universals" thusly: But what then is the Problem of Universals? As I said, it is usually taken to be the ...
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Prop IX of spinoza's ethics

This is the english translation I am reading from for Spinoza's Ethics Geometrically. In proposition IX of this work, spinoza states: PROP. IX. The more reality or being a thing has, the greater ...
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Descartes's Third Meditation

Descartes's third meditation, which sets out to prove the existence of God from previous considerations, confuses me greatly. Descartes appears to be trying to make an argument that the source must ...
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Is the physicalism/materialism vs dualism debate really just a question of semantics?

Substance dualism is defined as being different from physicalism because it posits 2 different categories of substances in the world as opposed to one category. But throughout the ages, all sorts of ...
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Relationship between Western thoughts and “Eastern thoughts”

I sometimes feel an agony between these two, when especially considering the so-called philosophy developed in terms of modern terminology in Western countries. I am now particularly referring here. ...
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Please recommend a good book on Physicalism

Can you recommend a good contemporary book that is considered a definitive or classical exposition of Physicalism? I have started reading Daniel Stoljar's Physicalism, but while it seems good, it is ...
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What logical fallacies exist in David Lewis and Stephanie Lewis' article called “holes”?

In David & Stephanie Lewis' Article "Holes" the nominalist/realist debate gets taken to a phenomena that all of us are likely directly aware of at one point in our lives. Holes. The absent ...
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Can a disembodied soul form empirical beliefs?

Is it metaphysically possible for a disembodied Cartesian soul to so much as form any purportedly empirical beliefs, even if only ones that are false?
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Does a Logical possibility exist necessarily or not-necessarily?

First off: What is the definition of a logical possibility? My personal suggestion is this: A logical possibility is a proposition in which multiple terms are connected in such a way that the ...
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How to define a number [closed]

What is the positive real number (say less than one) that is not a rational nor an irrational number? I have encountered a mathematical problem that confused me about the definition of real ...
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Questions on the second meditation by Descartes

Upon reading the second meditation of Descartes, I am perplexed by an illustration Descartes presents involving wax. For reference, this illustration, or argument, is contained within the 11th and ...
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why analogies work?

I am a philosophy noob. I have been reading about analogies and how they form the core of cognition. Consider this analogy: Putting a resistor reduces the flow of electrons in a wire. Putting a ...
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64 views

Nature of Persons and Mathematics

First, let me define 'Person' as anything complex enough to perceive truths about reality in the level that we do. Now, i'm gonna provide two mutually exclusive options about the nature of persons 1 ...
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1answer
38 views

How can one interpret impenetrability in Schopenhauer?

In Schopenhauers Die Welt, he writes: How early again was this truth recognised by the wise men of India, appearing indeed as the fundamental tenet of the Vedanta philosophy as ascribed to Vyasa, ...
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Causality vs. implication

Implication is said to be more general than causality since, for example, being a dog implies being a mammal but it doesn't cause it. Is there a formalization of the difference between implication and ...
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Ontology: How do ideas exist?

There are several ways of looking at ideas. There is a platonic way of looking at ideas which sees the ideas as kind eternal entities. Augustine puts these ideas in the mind of God. In either case ...
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The Copernican Principle and the Giant Void [closed]

Daniel Holz writes on a popular science blog Cosmic Variance:"The Copernican principle is a guiding foundation of cosmology. In short, it states that we are not in a privileged place in the Universe. ...
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Why does philosophy exist?

If Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems, such as those connected with reality, existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind and language. As defined by Wikipedia. Then if ...
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How can “essentialism” ever make sense?

So, searching for J. L. Mackies "argument from queerness", I stumbled upon this blog entry. Now, Mr. Feser seems to be a quite... controversial figure, to say the least, but please let's resist the ...
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How do modern metaphysicians respond to Kant and Wittgenstein?

As far as I've understood, Kant argued that metaphysical knowledge is impossible because the human mind is not capable enough to acquire it. Wittgenstein, on the other hand, claimed that metaphysical ...
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Patterns and Computation

Suppose we are going to start a celullar automata and we are expecting some patterns to emerge. My question : Do the patterns exist before the computation and they gain form or get instantiated in ...
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Quine's “to be is to be the value of a bound variable”

Quine's definition "to be is to be the value of a bound variable" seems uncontroversial and in fact quite natural as it's compatible with modern approaches to the semantics of natural language. My ...
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48 views

Berkeley's idealist view of physical objects

Berkeley sees objects as a set of ideas. His strict view on objects allows for cases like his relativity of perception argument (where a bucket of water can be both warm and cold, one person can find ...
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Ontology and the Future

I know that we have no right to automatically discard claims that are not falsifiable, however i was curious as to whether some claims in Ontology could be falsifiable in the future. I've ...
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Can Zenos paradox of motion be applied to a flashing blue light?

Zenos paradoxes of motion generally refer to actual motion through space; however for Aristotle this is motion in only one sense; an other sense could be alteration, for example change in shape and so ...
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Can we know the fundamental nature of space and time?

Can you please point me to an argument by a notable contemporary philosopher arguing why we may know the fundamental (metaphysical) nature of space and time? In a recent answer to a question I wrote ...
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Sets and typical elements

In (computational) commonsense reasoning, so-called typical elements of sets are used (as described her). I understand why they are useful from the point of view of applied logic but what is their ...
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How does “is” work in contemporary ontology

Sorry for being really vague and throwing out a really dumb and stupid question, i just need some help understanding the following bit, which appeared after i started reading about Ontology. What ...
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What's the difference between 'things' and 'rules'? [closed]

As I understand the world - there are 'things' which are everything and 'rules' which modify them. An example I'll give is this - let's say I'm free-falling from a plane. Then a thing is my view of ...
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Which branch of philosophy (metaphysics, epistemology, philosophy of science, etc…? ) does the question of properly defining life fall under?

Questions like: - Are viruses forms of life, or just very complex replicators? - Would a Von Neumann machine be considered alive? - Does life have to be organic? - Is reproduction a necessary ...
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Cheap ontology, expensive ontology and ontological commitment

In the book introduction to philosophy by william james earle, in the metaphysics chapter I couldn't understand those concepts clearly : Cheap ontology. Expensive ontology ontological commitment. ...
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140 views

Is it possible to prove the invalidity of logic without using logic?

Is it possible to validly invalidate logic without using logic? Mere assertion gives rise to the question, "How do you know?". At that point, you end up having to use logic to justify the thesis ...
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Is quantum physics based on language wordplay? [closed]

Sometimes I think that most of the Quantum Physics is deliberately complicated. For example, look at the Schrodinger's cat. Now I know that the cat represents various other complex phenomena for ...