Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the essence of things, of the fundamental nature of being and the world and the principles that organize the universe. Metaphysics is supposed to answer the question "What is the nature of reality?"

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What are the rebuttals (if any) to Berkeley's dismissal of “primary qualities”?

I am rereading Berkeley's Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous and am curious about any subsequent works which actively rebut his dismissal of primary qualities. From the first dialogue: ...
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are there separate things in existence? or they are fragmented psycologically? [on hold]

we all believe so but isnt it a subjective manipulation? I can see it is an illusion only when the mind is silent. is it true?
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Why the human mind can say stories that never happened?

Why the human mind can say stories that never happened? are there a kind of hidden connection between many worlds interpretation?
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102 views

What do philosophers mean by 'conceivable'?

Philosophers, especially in analytic metaphysics, often talk about the conceivability of things. Here are some examples: I can conceive a perfect being, therefore, a perfect being is possible. ...
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Did Putnam proved Hume wrong about the impossiblity of ground for ethical claims?

Is well known Hume's argument in A treatise of Human Nature that we can't derive normative judgments from descriptive statements. Recently one of my teachers said that Putnam proved Hume wrong showing ...
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50 views

Main differences between conventional and relative simultaneity?

What are the main differences between relative and conventional simultaneity? Did Einstein conform to a relative simultaneity belief then use the clock sychronisation convention to explain ...
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70 views

Kant's idealist view of space vs. modern science

Kant holds idealist view on space. He thinks space is merely “forms of intuition,” that is, ways in which human order and arrange the things they perceive. They are not features of things in ...
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Whats the philosophical originary thought for the empirical category of the wave?

Atoms, as is well known, was originated by Democritus to fend of Parmenides challenge of an unchangeable, eternal one. The other large category of thought in modern physics is that of the wave. ...
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72 views

Are perfection, morality, sanity and beauty “absolute”? [closed]

Are perfection/morality/sanity/beauty.. absolute terms? Perfection. I am told its a self evident term and cannot be defined. Anyway I had a conversation with a person who tried to prove the existence ...
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62 views

Can Something Exist in Nothing (Outside the bounds of our Universe)?

I have always been intrigued by cosmology and the idea that there is a possibility that absolutely nothing exists beyond our universe. Now I know that there are many theories regarding the universe ...
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67 views

A question about large cardinal axioms in set theory

In set theory,there are many kinds of large cardinal axioms.their existence cannot be proved in ZFC.but for many large cardinal properties,if we don't need they be uncountable infinity,they are ...
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What basic metaphysics should every philosophy student know?

Put another way, what background knowledge do you suggest that I brush up on to make me more sensitive to the lurking philosophical issues when I read philosophical texts and papers? Particularly ...
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Concerning an A.I. system and it's sensory capabilities

If tree falls in a forest and the only 'thing' nearby is an A.I. system (a robot) that detects the event , does the tree make a sound? In other words if the sound waves are 'received' by the A.I. ...
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Is “time” an abstract mental construct or is it something that exists independent of human consciousness?

I don't know if this makes sense, but I hope you can bear with me. When I consider my own existence with respect to time I can imagine three possibilities: (1) Time extends infinitely into the past. ...
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100 views

Is Suicide Courageous or Cowardliness? [closed]

Another good question which the movie Cloud Atlas presents by a gay love story, which ends tragically. Robert Frobisher commits the deed, sadly, but in his very last letter he wrote: My dearest ...
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67 views

can all concepts really explained by a language,for example,English?

suppose we have to explain what is the word "grandmother" mean,we can say that means mother's mother.then you asked what "mother" means,we can say you born from you mother.then you ask what "born" ...
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a problem of an infinite long running race

suppose A and B are two people,they can live forever,will never die.if omega exists really,one day,the have an omega-metre long run race on a straight road more than omega metres long.BOTH A and B run ...
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Does infinity exist in the real world,other than just in mathmatics?

My question is,is infinity numbers,like omega,aleph-null,exists in the real world,other than just exists in the mathmatics theory?for example,if time has no start point,is there a world more than ...
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The Soil of Being and Time

In Being and Time, Heidegger claims that an analysis of Dasein is preparatory in that it is guided by the task of working out the question of being. In particular, its purpose is to "uncover the soil" ...
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88 views

Nomologically possible worlds and physicalism

As I understand, nomologically possible world is a world which is governed by the laws of physics of the actual world, but doesn't that kind of entail that in all nomologically possible worlds ...
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43 views

How are sortals different than types?

The criteria for a sortal from Wikipedia: gives a criterion for counting the items of that kind gives a criterion of identity and non-identity among items of that kind gives a criterion for ...
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85 views

Do humans have an obligation to ensure that death actually occurs when we think it does?

I've been struggling to articulate my question for quite some time so this may or may not be coherent. Philosopher Shelly Kagan, a Yale professor who has an Open Course on 'the philosophy of death', ...
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57 views

In modern philosophy, what distinguishes a property from a qualty?

I know modern philosophers debate whether we have sufficient warrant to conceive of properties and qualities as mutually distinct. The existence of such a debate entails the existence of, ostensibly, ...
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Does existence precede quiddity?

Is there an undisputed argument about the existence of God, as for instance Avicenna's and Mulla Sadra's metaphysical argument, which states that "existence is ontologically prior to essence"? Some ...
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Is there a hierarchy of natural laws?

All matter attracts all other matter. and Of a statement and its negation, precisely one is true. can both with justification be called "natural laws", as they hold true in all cases in our ...
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44 views

How is variation in genes related to self-awareness?

I sometimes wonder if "I" would have existed if another sperm had fertilized the egg that was to become "me". Is this even answerable in any meaningful way? I sit here and experience myself as a ...
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Does Hegel's Schematization of Art Still Work?

Upon study of G.W.F. Hegel's two volume work Lectures on Fine Art he presents a schema of the arts based on the external and internal relations of the Idea in its dialectic mode of expression. Of ...
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Can a machine, lacking reflection, be a Person?

We are well beyond Frankenstein and the experience that the machine—“it’s alive”! As we continue to rely on Suri’s for GPS directions, “self”-checkout aisles, or the artificial intelligence of robotic ...
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196 views

How does an Immaterial being interact with the material realm?

By what means would an immaterial being(assuming such a thing exists) create or do things in the material realm? Is this an impossible activity? So philosophically, I'm asking how would one solve the ...
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78 views

Can anyone ever state how things are not?

This question relates to situations of infinite regress. For example, in reading through answers to this question Are there any non-divine objective standards of good/evil? I noticed the statement ...
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Hume and Kant on causality: do their views really differ?

David Hume If one event always follows another we believe the first causes the second. But it is impossible to prove, empirically or logically, that the second event happened because the first ...
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45 views

What is a good reference to see how noumena and phenomena are connected?

What philosophies or philosophers made attempts to unify noumena and phenomena as indistinct from each other, that is to show that they are all mere pattern representations* in a "mindspace"**? The ...
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100 views

Is it necessary/possible to prove that facts exist?

I am having a debate with someone on the internets. He claims that there are no such things as facts absent interpretation. For example, if I see a ball dropping, it's not a fact that a ball is ...
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What is Jonathan Schaffers view on modality?

Jonathan Schaffer is famous for his Priority Monism, or (metaphysical) Monism in general. He has worked on Fundamentality, Truthmaking and Causation among others. In 'Monism. The Priority of the ...
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do the laws of physics change?

If all things change over time (that already doesn't make sense but anyway), do the laws of nature/physics also change over time? Are there any attempts to prove or disprove this? If this is so, ...
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What exactly does Pierce is trying to argue here?

This paragraph from SEP under the sub-heading Pierce on Reality and Truth: We can then think of the real only as the cause of the (singular) sensations which, in turn, provide our sole ...
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Help me understand Logical Positivists points

I am studying Logical Positivism on my own, and though I get the most of it, I am confused about some points, and I will be really grateful if you can help me here. I am studying it from here. In the ...
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246 views

Existence of God

In this days I'm following an interesting scientific TV program and yesterday I watched an interview of Stephen Hawking. He was arguing about the existence of God saying that God does not exist since ...
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117 views

Is the Body without Organs a phase space? Or an image of the actual body?

Reading Deleuze and Guattari's Anti-Oedipus, I am unclear on the nature of the Body without Organs. Most literature seems to describe this body as a phase space in the mathematical sense of the term, ...
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Why do we tend towards discretizing things around and within us?

Why do we tend towards discretizing things around and within us? Do our senses (for space and time) fool us into this notion all the way into the need for discretizing abstractions themselves, e.g. An ...
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122 views

How does Desire create the Real?

In Holland's Introduction to Schizoanalysis, the author states that Desire produces the Real analogously to the production of evidence in a courtroom: Desire structures and invests our perceptions. ...
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144 views

Is Immortality a Relative Property?

People talk about immortality like they know what it is. They say it is "living forever". But we can imagine somebody who experiences life getting asymptotically slower and slower, so that they never ...
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What are some criticisms of Plato's “all opposites are generated out of each other” in Phaedo?

In Phaedo to argue the soul exists after death with the cyclical argument, Plato posited a philosophical assumption that all opposites —e.g. less, greater; weaker, stronger; sleeping, waking; life, ...
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What exactly is Ghazali's argument here? Please see if you can help.

The text: These are just a few of the inconsistencies of the philosophers pointed out by al-Ghazali in the course of his disputation with regard to the eternity of the world and they could be ...
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What is the ontological status of information that is permanently inaccessible to any conceivable observer?

Rovelli & others, in Relational Quantum Mechanics (RQM) take the simple ontological picture of the Copenhagen Picture and relativise it. This is what I was suggesting in this question, though I ...
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Does pure Place have Being?

According to Aristotelian physics A vacuum, or void, is a place free of everything, and Aristotle argued against the possibility. Void doesn't seem to be the Parmenidian Non-Being. It still ...
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Is Poppers criticism of Kant valid?

Hume applying rationality to causality showed that it could not exist - the question is then how does it exist. Kants reply was to place it in the mind. Popper discusses this in his *Conjectures & ...
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235 views

Physics, Theoretical Understanding and the Limits of Human Knowledge/Understanding

During an interview with Discover magazine, Roger Penrose makes the claim that a lot of the most theoretical physics, a la the physical theories that try to account for the discrepancies and ...
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57 views

What is Aristotle trying to say here?

I was reading Aristotle's Metaphysics, and I'm stumped on this passage: Yet the acquisition of it [wisdom, knowledge of first causes and principles] must in a sense end in something which is the ...
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Are there laws of Nature?

The laws of physics observably change, that is their expression in terms of mathematics can, both through internal coherance & through physical insight. One supposes that there are actually laws ...