Ontology is the study of the nature of being, existence or reality as such, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.

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Can there be cause and effect without time?

Our usual understanding of cause and effect operates tensely; that is in time. But consider a basic statement in some generic computer language: if x then y Is this in time? Well an actually ...
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What does the “meaning of Being” mean in Being and Time?

I read Being and Time a few years ago, but it seems to me the question is only partially answered there. He deals with the question of whether Being is "indefinable" very early on [p 4]. He claims ...
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Why Bad Things (Habits/Pessimism) prevails automatically,But Good Things(Optimism) wont be adhered even if induced? [closed]

Good Habits are not adhered to our routines even if practised where as Bad Habits are too much attractive implicitly without any effort. Why? Here, Please dont simply Divide Good & Bad Habits are ...
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Is our Philosophy, the Human Philosophy, the only possible Philosophy which can exist?

What I'm asking is if is there any possibility for a Non-human Philosophy, that is, a Philosophy founded on questions which we can't even conceive. Is possible a Philosophy of questions which only can ...
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Since any human language describes objects, does it therefore contain some knowledge of the Nature and laws of its development? [closed]

This question complements the question: Do higher level comprehensive Laws, which govern the phenomena of Nature, exist? One philosophical debate in epistemology and ontology is whether knowledge ...
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Are information carrying systems of the same complexity equivalent? (integrated information theory)

I have just come into contact with the integrated information theory of consciousness (and its relatives), which would have it that consciousness stems from information-rich (and integrated) systems. ...
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Explain Hilary Putnam's argument against Cartesian skepticism

Hilary Putnam, in "Reason, Truth And History", attempts to argue against Cartesian (or hyperbolic) doubt, by proving that a 'brain in a vat' cannot actually think that it is a brain in a vat. Part ...
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Which ontological commitments are embedded in a straightforward Turing machine model?

Let's assume that in response to a question or problem, a certain type of idealized finite Turing machine can be presented as an answer as if it would really (=physically) exist. Is the corresponding ...
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Do thoughts exist? How about ideas?

Do thoughts exist? (Yes, I know it depends what I mean by 'existence' but I want that to be included in any answer; another way to phrase my question would be, can you define 'existence' with a ...
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Does Cartesian Doubt Depend on Cartesian Dualism?

Even though this isn't exactly accurate, the way I like to think of Descartes' hyperbolic doubt as stating that there's no way to prove that information gained through sensory experience is accurate. ...
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What does it mean for an object to exist ?

In many cases , we ask questions if something ALREADY exists! Many times , I ask myself , What does the term even mean ? What does it mean to exist ? this question make me think much about it. But ...
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What do we mean by the symbolic representation of nothing?

The word 'nothing' symbolically represents nothing-in-itself. But how can we refer to something that by definition is not there? To make this clearer: the word 'horse' refers to an actual living ...
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Are fundamental entities equivalent to fundamental forces and time + other dimensions?

If fundamental entities are most basic components that other things are composed of? Then fundamental forces and time + other dimensions should be a complete list of fundamental entities? Or ...
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Can an infinite be undifferentiated?

Starting in amthematics: The infinite in mathematics must be differentiated: we have the sequence - 0,1,2,3...; where each number is distinct. The same goes for infinite ordinals and cardinals. ...
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Is composition more than the composite parts

Sorry for the somewhat dumb question! Please do see if you can make sense of the latter, and put it in formal or whatever terms. If a chariot is equal to its parts then the chariot is not its "being" ...
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What did Einstein make of Bohmian Mechanics?

Its well-known that Einstein was uncomfortable about the anti-realist and non-deterministic status of Quantum Mechanics, declaring that God does not play dice However, a realist and ...
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Can definition be existence (in mathematics)?

The set omega, as the comment in this question points out, can be defined as the smallest set that is closed under succession and includes the empty set. This is enough to define it uniquely, but to ...
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Defining the universe

The etymology of the word universe comes from the Latin words uni, meaning one, and versus, meaning turn and is attested from Late Middle English. It suggests that the universe is 'mortal', having a ...
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Is there a third way, distinct from determinism and randomness? [closed]

The idea of free-will is often invoked to resolve some apparent philosophical problems, for example problems of assigning personal morality under determinism and the problem of evil. It seems to me ...
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About existence and related terminology

Is there a difference between when a person says 'I exists.', compared to the same person saying ' I'm existing.'? Is the person saying at the one time 'I exist.' saying he exists at a certain moment ...
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Is Not-Being identical with Nothing?

Anne-Marie Schimmel writes in Mystical dimensions of Islam Sufism comes close to it [Shankara Advaita Philosophy] in some of the forms developed by the Ibn-Arabi school. Here the Numen is ...
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Can there be Creation Ex Nihilo?

In Christian & Islamic Theology, one could argue that there can't be Creation Ex Nihilo since 'before' Creation there was God. In Philosophical Naturalism (which is not Physicalism - it subsumes ...
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About Anselm's Ontological Argument and Bertrand Russell

Did Bertrand Russell read and analyse Anselm's Ontological Argument and if so did he have anything positive to say about it?
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Platonic form of existence

I was reading that the platonic forms have the following principles 1. Commonality 2. Separation 3. Self-Predication 4. Purity 5. Uniqueness 6. Sublimity But if there is a Platonic form ...
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Badiou, Deicide & the return of the Transcendent

Badious philosophy is predicated on Set Theory, in its incarnation as the materialist set theory ZFC. He calls mathematics the very site of ontology. Nietszche famously declared the death of God (in ...
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On speaking of 'apparently' non-physical things

Something has really been bugging me lately. Bare in mind I haven't really studied any Philosophy of Mind, but I currently accept that only the physical exists. It comes as being something very ...
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The selfless gene

Richard Dawkins, in a fine bit of rhetoric in his book the selfish gene, asserts that from one perspective, that our bodies are merely the means by which genes reproduce themselves. We are mortal, but ...
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Whats the philosophical originary thought for the empirical category of the wave?

Atoms, as is well known, was originated by Democritus to fend of Parmenides challenge of an unchangeable, eternal one. The other large category of thought in modern physics is that of the wave. ...
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Can an eternal universe be created?

In both Christian & Islamic thought the universe is created, and this is taken that the universe had a definite beginning; philosophically we can justify this position by arguing that were we to ...
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Qs about interpretations on Parmenides's claim

Parmenides's classic claim is that what does not exist cannot be thought about. (It has been read as a claim that every truth-bearer must have a truth-maker, since otherwise the truth-bearer is not ...
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What are the Main Objections to Being and Nothingness?

I am currently in the process of reading Being and Nothingness. In the interest of getting through it, I have not been fully challenging Sartre's theory as I go along. Can someone point to the main ...
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Contradiction, and the Being and Becoming of Mathematics [closed]

Mathematics is rife with contradictions, is shot through with them: the fault-lines lie where theories collide, fade or open up. Does this disturb the incarnation of mathematics - the Ideal ...
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Is a couple living in symbiosis?

I think the answer is yes. Since male and female can live on their own. But for the sake of reproduction and child rearing some form of symbiosis can develop.
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Who is inside and outside the bubble? [closed]

Are some people 'inside the bubble' ie. non thinking and sheep like and other people 'outside the bubble' with self awareness and well developed consciousness? If so is there a way of defining the ...
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Do all objects have properties?

Assumption: An object has no properties. I can think of that object as an object with the property that it has no properties, but this is a contradiction to my assumption. Hence all thinkable objects ...
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How does an Immaterial being interact with the material realm?

By what means would an immaterial being(assuming such a thing exists) create or do things in the material realm? Is this an impossible activity? So philosophically, I'm asking how would one solve the ...
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Existence of God

In this days I'm following an interesting scientific TV program and yesterday I watched an interview of Stephen Hawking. He was arguing about the existence of God saying that God does not exist since ...
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Can we have Ethics without Ontology?

Just finished reading Ethics without Ontology (2004) by Harvard professor Hilary Putnam where he argues for a pragmatic pluralism, conceptual relativity, and the obligations to recognize and resist ...
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How could a prophet prove its authenticity?

In the event of an existing god wanting to deliver a message to mankind and choosing one person for it, how could this person prove, if possible, that he speaks in the name of God? Edit: Please note ...
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Eastern philosophy for a Western audience

I have been listening to and reading a lot of Alan Watts material on Eastern philosophy which I find to be greatly edifying literature. I am having difficulty finding information on who is currently ...
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Why are human beings and their creations not considered “nature” or “natural”?

I read about how the human being is nature nature (which it is), about global warming (which can be a myth), the production of certain commodities (oil, sugar, PET bottles, glass) etc. I was ...
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Does Santa Claus exist?

Consider the following reasons why the answer could be "yes": Plato-ish: The Santa Clauses in the children's minds, as well as the Santa Clauses you meet in the malls are the projections of the Santa ...
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If there is life, then there is more complex life as well?

Researchers in Switzerland have developed an Altruism algorithm that shows how altruism in a swarm of entities can, over time, evolve and result in more effective swarm behaviour. For an ant colony, ...
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Is a pile of ants a, more or less, intelligent being?

Due to the definition of life an ant colony acts and reacts like a life form. There is even a "Ant colony optimization" Example Algorithm... Does this mean that the whole pile of ants, not its ...
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Is our existence perfect?

The definition of "Perfect" is having all of the required or desirable elements, qualities, or characteristics. Simply put, when something is perfect, it is as good as it can possibly be. ...
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Objective qualia definition

I thought of an, as I think, objective definition of qualia which is this: In any material (= physical) system a quale is defined by a boundary from the containing universe and with a negative ...
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Logics Epistemology: Can Maths and physics meet in one point

Is logics (logic rules, arithmetic and logic inference) universe-dependent or not. In other words: are logic rules ultimately physical laws of the universe (as gravity, quantum laws and ...
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Gödel's ontological proof and the incompleteness theorem

In Gödel's ontological proof, he concludes: "necessarily, God exists" (Theorem 4) Does Gödel's second incompleteness theorem apply to this proof?
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Reference request: the Brahma-Sûtra-Bhâshya of Śaṅkara

The Brahma-Sûtra-Bhâshya of Śaṅkara is the commentary by Śaṅkara of the Brahma-Sûtra. Śaṅkara was one of the greatest Hindu philosopher. The Brahma-Sûtra is one the greatest text on ontology of the ...
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Is it possible to justify any purpose in life?

A long time ago I've come to believe that there is no inherent purpose for existence, that is, we can't find any single "unifying" goal of living. So - I thought - we all have to find a purpose for ...