Plato (424/423 BC – 348/347 BC) was a Classical Greek philosopher, writer of philosophical dialogues, and founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. Plato is considered to be the founder of Western philosophy.

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What social class was Socrates from?

Its well known that Plato was from the aritocratic elite of Athenian society. In his writings Socrates figure as his pre-eminent philosophical spokesperson. There is a adage, which might be a truism ...
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What did Plato mean when he used the word “villian”?

In Plato's dialogue titled Euthydemus, he used the word 'villain' in the derogatory sense to describe a dog. However, the OED agrees that 'villain' came into common use because of the lower social ...
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Should a king be restrict to marry a queen that is also a philosopher in Plato's point of view?

Should a king be restrict to marry a queen that is also a philosopher in Plato's point of view? I know that the king had big power and should be a philosopher in Plato's view. If the queen have some ...
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Why is Nietzsche so against Socrates?

Nietzsche recalls the story that Socrates says that 'he has been a long time sick', meaning that life itself is a sickness; Nietszche accuses him of being a sick man, a man against the instincts of ...
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Critique of Korsgaard's polis-comparison?

I am currently reading Korsgaard's Self-Constitution in the Ethics of Plato and Kant (which you can find here). I was wondering if the argumentative step from an injustice in the perfectly arranged ...
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Why does one worry about the existence of a number but not of a dog?

One can ask whether the number one exists, and there are a range of answers. In particular, Platonism holds that this number does exist in some abstract world. Now observe that number and one are ...
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Was Marcus Aurelius the first philosopher-king?

Marcus Aurelius, well-known for his Meditations, in the second century AD, was a Stoic philosopher and also emperor of the Roman empire. Plato, in his Republic, advised that the ideal rulers of his ...
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How did Antiquity deal with the disappearance of the Transcendent?

In Western Philosophy, Existentialism heeding Nietzches call was the first philosophy that dealt with the loss of the transcendent in a formal way. Whereas prior to him, it anchored, or rather was ...
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Platonic form of existence

I was reading that the platonic forms have the following principles 1. Commonality 2. Separation 3. Self-Predication 4. Purity 5. Uniqueness 6. Sublimity But if there is a Platonic form ...
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Purush and Platos city and soul

In the Rigveda Purush is described as: as a primeval giant that is sacrificed by the gods (see Purushamedha) and from whose body the world and the varnas (classes) are built. He is described as ...
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What basic metaphysics should every philosophy student know?

Put another way, what background knowledge do you suggest that I brush up on to make me more sensitive to the lurking philosophical issues when I read philosophical texts and papers? Particularly ...
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Is Plato's Socrates contradicting himself here? (Phaedo 75a)

Phaedo 74e-75b “Then we must have had knowledge of equality before the time when we first saw equal things and thought, ‘All these things are aiming to be like equality but fall short.’” ...
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My professor claimed that “F = ma” is a Platonic form. I disagreed, but is it?

My professor claimed in a lecture that equations such as "Force = mass x acceleration" are Platonic forms. I disagree for a few reasons: A form is non-spatiotemporal. Force is a vector, which has ...
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Is an exegete an explicator?

The SEP, remarks that, Ion in Platos dialogue of the same name: is a prize-winning professional reciter of poetry—a “rhapsode” — and of Homer in particular. Though he speaks his lines with the ...
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Are numbers universal in Set Theory and nominalist in Category Theory?

The number 3, when considered as a universal, abstracts the property of 3'ness from all groups of 3 objects. One supposes that this universal, by conceptual neccessity of what is understood by the ...
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Is Plato's Theory of the Forms entirely accepted by anyone?

Plato's idea: "Plato's theory of Forms or theory of Ideas asserts that non-material abstract (but substantial) forms (or ideas), and not the material world of change known to us through sensation, ...
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Viewed through Christianity, do all 'ideas' reflect a heavenly body via Plato's the Forms?

Plato felt, in his theory of the Forms, that everything on Earth reflects a perfect, heavenly version (the original, if you like). Many Christians follow a similiar belief. A spoke to Justin Welby's ...
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What are some criticisms of Plato's “all opposites are generated out of each other” in Phaedo?

In Phaedo to argue the soul exists after death with the cyclical argument, Plato posited a philosophical assumption that all opposites —e.g. less, greater; weaker, stronger; sleeping, waking; life, ...
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The question of Being and Not-being - Plato's Sophist

In Plato's Sophist he tackles the question of being and not-being. Can something that "is" be "not" or to put it in perspective can an idea that is true be false? If somebody has the idea of winning ...
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best Phaedrus edition to start with for beginner

I'm interested particularly in Socrates' condemnation of written words and its propensity to create a false and superficial sense of intelligence which seems so prescient in light of how people use ...
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Why did Socrates consider the donkey to be a perverse animal?

In the Phaedo, Plato has Socrates saying (and Cebes agreeing with him) that: Well, those who have cultivated gluttony or selfishness or drunkenness, instead of taking pains to avoid them, are ...
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How do modern philosophers oppose relativism?

If my understanding is correct, Plato's theory of forms was developed to counter the relativism of Sophists such as Protagoras. His theory does not seem to have modern followers, as far as I know, yet ...
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Is Socrates mocking Ion in Plato's dialogue?

In "Ion", Socrates argues that Ion's poetic talents are a gift of the gods, but not the product of any knowledge/skills. Ion naturally takes that as a compliment, being called "divine", but is ...
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If Parmenides denied the reality of void, would he then have affirmed the reality of space?

Lucretious, in his poem de rerum natura had atoms moving through the void. It seems at least from a modern perspective that his void is what we would call space. The interesting question, which I ...
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Did Aristotle write or comment on any mystical or esoteric doctrines?

It's quite clear that Plato in some of his later dialogues tended towards mysticism - for example his cosmology in the Timaeus. Did Aristotle, do anything similar?
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Are there any listings of Plato's dialogues in internal chronological order?

Traditionally, the dialogues of Plato have been listed in the order in which Plato is thought to have composed them, because it's believed that Plato presented a more accurate picture of Socrates' ...
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In greek philosophy, what is the difference between “gnosis” and “episteme”?

In greek philosophy, Plato especially, what is the difference between "gnosis" and "episteme" ? Both apparently designate different types of knowledge, but I couldn't find any precise description of ...
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What is the connection between Platos theory of Forms & the platonic realm in the philosophy of mathematics

From what I understand about Platos theory of Forms, it seems little to do with mathematical concepts, although he uses geometry as an example, for example the form of the Triangle, he also introduces ...
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Is it fair to say that Platos answer to Juvenals question 'who guards the guardians' - is that they themselves do?

'Who guards the guardians' is a phrase lifted from the satirical poet Juvenal Satires, (and not as I thought from Plato). The context here is marital infidelity, but Juvenal being a (satirical) poet ...
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What is the most credible picture of Plato's Academy in Plato's time?

I assume there actually was an Academy set up by Plato and not taken over by him and made famous. In the paintings I've seen of it - admittedly done in the Renaissance -, it looks rather grand, like ...
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Was neoplatonism a synthesis of Jewish & Platonic monotheism?

Was neoplatonism a synthesis of Jewish & Platonic monotheism? Neoplatonism was a school of mystical philosophy synthesising Jewish theology and Platos philosophy. Its major theorist & ...
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Why were books of philosophy available in the orchestra in Platos time?

This isn't a philosophical question per se; but asking for some clarifying background information on a classic book of philosophy. In Platos dialogue Apologia Socrates mentions that Anaxagoras books ...
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What are the major innovations in social contract theory did Rousseau make compared to that of Platos Crito?

In Platos dialogue Crito where Socrates is urged by Crito to flee before he is executed. Socrates refuses and outlines a theory of social contact between a citizen and the city. I had understood ...
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Has the early part of Platos Timaeus been used as evidence for establishing the origins of philosophy?

Although admitting that there was a long-running debate on the origins of Philosophy, Diogenes Laertius asserts that Philosophy began with the Greeks. This can mean only that the debate centred around ...
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Was Gödel the first person to bring up that truth always exceeds the grasp of proof?

Was Gödel the first person to pose and solve this question in mathematics? In the larger philosophical debate, has this question been posed before? Say by Plato or Aristotle? One could interpret for ...
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What is the most accurate translation of “Eudaimonia”?

I am taking an introduction course to philosophy at my university. And the professors are translating "Eudaimonia" to "A happy life", or "A good life", used "Living a good/happy life". My course is in ...
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what was Plato's view on noumenon?

The relation between objects in the world is established by pure concepts existing a-priori: 1) These concepts belong to a world of absolute concepts away from the mind - Plato 2) These concepts ...
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Stephanus numbering

I have all of Plato's works, but unfortunately they're missing the Stephanus numbering. Is there a resource which I can use to see which paragraphs they refer to? A brief table containing the first ...
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Platonic Forms and Deleuzian Ideas

After presenting a paper before members of The French Society of Philosophy titled The Method of Dramatisation, Gilles Deleuze was posed a number of questions by those in attendance. The crux of the ...
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Is there any evidence that Plato had inscribed above his academy 'Let no-one ignorant of geometry enter here'?

I've seen this in quite a few places, I'm just wondering if it's a cultural myth, or whether it actually has a basis in fact.
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Is democracy scalable?

In a small tribe, where pretty much everyone knows everyone else (and their ancestors) one could elect one person to rule over all; he is in a simple sense, first amongst equals, for all the members ...
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Does the freudian subconcious have roots in Plato?

I read somewhere, I think it may even be in a dialogue of Plato, rather than a commentary, but I've forgotten altogether that Plato had a notion of the subconcious. Is there a reference for this ...
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Was the Republic a meritocracy?

One direct way of stating the heart of the question might be: is there sufficient textual evidence and support for the assertion that Plato's Republic contains meritocratic elements? A second and ...
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Summary of Callicles and Thrasymachus's arguments regarding injustice

I find somewhat odd to find out that there does not seem to exist concise summary or review of Callicles and Thrasymachus's arguments for supporting injustice, so I ask this question: what would be ...
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Why was Socratic epistemology diminished?

My question is a follow-up from reading this answer; "Roughly speaking, Socrates believed truth could not be discovered with certainty, Plato believed that truth could only be known via ...
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Is the coast of england a platonic form?

A real-world circle is not a true circle which, as far as Platos concerned, lives in the World of Forms. But isn't a fractal a mathematical form, so that does live in the the World of Forms; and as ...
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Is there any Philosophical significance to why Plato chose to present his work in the form of a dialogue?

Spinoza presented his work in a proposition/theorem format following Euclid, presumably to varnish his work in the seemingly eternal verities of mathematics. Is there any significance as to why Plato ...
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Is it possible to deduce how much of Platos philosophy is original to himself and not due to his predecessors?

Alfred North Whitehead said 'The safest general characterization of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato'. I'm not interested (in this question) ...
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Why did Epicureanism become “the main opponent” of Stoicism?

I was reading about Epicureanism on Wikipedia, and there I saw that, apparently, Epicureanism was in conflict with Stoicism and Platonism. I then read up on those two philosophies, and well, they do ...
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Question on learning type in Plato Cave Allegory

My question is based on the Cave of Plato. In this myth I see two types of learning. The first type of learning is the person that is released from the cave and climbs up to the light. The second ...