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-5
votes
2answers
58 views

Assuming right and wrong aren't arbitrary

Given that there is an answer to the question "why be moral", which is not in terms of it being in ones "interest", that "it is irrational to be immoral or at least... not irrational to be moral"... ...
1
vote
0answers
29 views

What are the necessary and sufficient constraints on the world-to-mind direction of fit?

A glossary that John MacFarlane keeps defines direction of fit like so: direction of fit: The direction of the “match” between the world and an intentional state or speech act that is required for ...
4
votes
1answer
114 views

What would Kant say about an irrational person?

I've been reading about Kant and everything I've read so far assumes that as we make ethical decisions we are dealing with a rational person. For example, Kant argued that rational beings can never be ...
0
votes
1answer
36 views

Buridan's ass (and determinism)

A question was asked here relatively recently about the ability of human's to come up with truly random numbers, and (in my opinion) one can meaningfully ask that same question regarding almost any ...
7
votes
1answer
104 views

Why wouldn't a government be as tainted as ordinary people according to Hobbes?

I have been watching an episode of Total Philosophy, on Hobbes' theory on why we should be governed. I was now wondering how it could be possible to achieve a just and authoritative government, if ...
0
votes
1answer
51 views

Intuition as long term rational thinking

I read this article about intuition (gut feeling?) on wikipedia, and I simply can't get my head over it. Why is intuition considered as "acquiring knowledge without interference or the use of reason". ...
0
votes
1answer
146 views

Rational irrationality of emotions and simulated annealing

When a colleague of mine stated that "emotions are life's simulated annealing" I found that idea very interesting. In order to explain why let me describe briefly the optimization algorithm known as ...
2
votes
4answers
103 views

What rationalizations exist for motivation?

We're all just atoms interacting, there is no supernatural, free will is either invalid or an illusion, depending on how it's defined. There is no purpose to our lives, it really makes no difference ...
1
vote
2answers
68 views

Does Risk Aversion cause Diminishing Marginal Utility, or vice versa?

Let A be the set of possible states of the world, or possible preferences a person could have. Let G(A) be the set of "gambles" or "lotteries", i.e. the set of probability distributions over A. Then ...
4
votes
2answers
146 views

What arguments have there been on the relative merits of praxeology vs rationality?

Suppose you know what someone's goals are, and how much they value each of their goals. Then if you observe their behavior in a given situation, how can you understand why they acted the way they ...
3
votes
4answers
282 views

Is induction as a means to reach a conclusion rational?

According to Humes's argument, induction by its nature assumes a uniformity that is not justified. This is a very deep and interesting observation, and a point often used by the religious to justify ...
2
votes
3answers
344 views

Why are humans risk-averse? [closed]

The economic theory and much of the decision theory are based on the assumption that we are risk-averse creatures; in the sense that we are more sensitive to bad outcomes than the good ones and so ...
3
votes
1answer
75 views

What is this expanded notion of rationality called?

I usually used to take "rational" as meaning "in accordance with reason". Recently however, I read a book on emotional intelligence, where the author implied that certain emotions are "rational". That ...
4
votes
1answer
102 views

What would constitute a reasonable expectation of privacy?

To some degree this is presumably a legal question, but my question is really trying to ask about the principle here. I guess the core question is about what expectations a "reasonable" agent might ...
-3
votes
1answer
276 views

Is the universe rational? [closed]

Physics relies on the fundamental postulate that the universe follows certain laws, and it just remains to find out exactly what they are. In this sense the universe is rationally explicable. But ...
6
votes
1answer
296 views

Why does Aquinas argue that rationality of the universe points to a creator?

In the Summa, Aquinas, working from an Aristotelian philosophical position, argues that the rationality of the universe points to a creator. If I am correct in interpreting his work, he says that the ...
1
vote
4answers
399 views

Can playing lotteries be rational?

Suppose you have to choose between: a. getting 1$ b. getting a ticket of the lottery L(p) which gives you 1'000'000'000$ with probability p and 0 with probability (1-p), with p such that the ...
12
votes
2answers
839 views

What impact has Douglass Hofstadter's superrationality had in terms of philosophy?

Superrational decision making is a type of rational decision making in which the players cooperate in a one-shot prisoner's dilemma without coordination, punishment, or magical thinking. The idea is ...
10
votes
1answer
939 views

What is Kant's argument about the relationship between logic and reason?

At Wikipedia, I read: Logic arose (see below) from a concern with correctness of argumentation. Modern logicians usually wish to ensure that logic studies just those arguments that arise from ...
7
votes
4answers
716 views

Rationality in Eastern and Western Philosophy

I am aware of the way Western philosophers define rationality but I do not know whether Eastern philosophers define it. Are there any differences between the Eastern and Western philosophical ...
5
votes
1answer
70 views

Does rational choice theory stack up against reality?

Rational choice theory has been criticised on the grounds that "consumers are not rational, so doesn't make much sense because utility functions can't model consumer preferences." But is there actual ...
5
votes
3answers
218 views

Is it wrong to say something is X if it cannot not be X?

I'm having a discussion with someone who thinks that it's a non-sequitur to describe something as X if it's not possible for it to not be X. Here's an example: It's wrong to say a chair is ...
8
votes
6answers
377 views

When and why do we say that two things are the same

In a preceeding question I have asked about the foundations of rational reasonning. It seems the concept of identity plays a key role. However "identity" is not observed in the real world: our mind ...