This tag should be used when the question is asking for specific references.

learn more… | top users | synonyms (2)

4
votes
7answers
513 views

Why distrust our senses?

It seems self-evident that the phenomena we sense are accurate and correlate to the real world. What sorts of philosophical arguments might cast doubt on this conviction in the veridicality of ...
0
votes
1answer
29 views

Tricks like Loaded Questions

I'm asking as a dilettante and greenhorn, so am interested in applied, informal, practical aids or resources (and not abstract, formal, esoteric papers). Is there a (catholic/general) term that ...
2
votes
3answers
59 views

Is there a philosophy of things that could not be discovered?

Excuse me for such nonsensical question, but for some time, the idea of things that could not be discovered bothers me. I guess that this is an interesting object of investigation, and I also guess ...
1
vote
2answers
26 views

Can anyone help me find critical published responses to this paper?

Research and discovery of counterarguments has quite a lot to do with philosophy as a practice, and I'm hoping to improve on my technique and see what others can do. In line with this, I have a ...
1
vote
0answers
52 views

Are non-human animals capable of fictional thought? [closed]

What studies have shown- if at all and to what extent- non-human animals are capable of fictional cognition (imagination, playful speculation, etc.)? I understand there’s no reason to rule out such ...
4
votes
0answers
56 views

The Critical Philosophy Critically Examined

I was given a reference to a book with a title as in the title of this question one time several years ago (in the early 1990s), but I forget the name of the author. The book was published in the ...
2
votes
3answers
46 views

Consolation for failure or fear of failure?

What philosophers have specifically explored failure and the fear of failure? What works / passages?
11
votes
2answers
2k views

Where did Machiavelli say that “the ends justify the means”?

I have read The Prince, Discourses on Livy and The Art of War. In none of these books did I find the quote oft-attributed to Machiavelli that “the ends justify the means”. Did he say it? If so, where? ...
1
vote
5answers
254 views

Since any human language describes objects, does it therefore contain some knowledge of the Nature and laws of its development? [closed]

This question complements the question: Do higher level comprehensive Laws, which govern the phenomena of Nature, exist? One philosophical debate in epistemology and ontology is whether knowledge ...
2
votes
1answer
58 views

How to self-learn legal arguments, logic, and reasoning?

What are some readable, eloquent (without legalese) books on arguments, fallacies, logic, and reasoning, as applied and used in law? This question is aimed towards a greenhorn/tenderfoot with ...
1
vote
0answers
29 views

Where is philosophy today [closed]

Basically I'd like to know which are the main philosophical schools today (meaning maybe the last 5-10 or even 15-20 years), where they come from and, if there is a reasonable answer, where are they ...
3
votes
5answers
192 views

How should people who don't follow the “golden rule” be treated?

I think the value and effectiveness of the golden rule as guide to ethical conduct is self-evident, so far as the individual is recieving equivalent treatment in return among peers. Yet, I have ...
3
votes
2answers
96 views

Has the question of after-life been discussed in philosophy? [closed]

There are a lot of debates and arguments about whether a 'monotheistic' God exists or not; they are usually directed toward the God of the Old and New Testament. Why aren't there more recent debates ...
1
vote
2answers
122 views

Do academic philosophers have a special duty to challenge their government?

This is a question about source materials: I'm hoping someone can point me to a modern treatment of obligations to the state incurred by the act of philosophizing, or even an argument against the ...
1
vote
2answers
53 views

Are there any comprehensive undergrad level philosophy books about definitions?

Although I believe that I now have some vague idea about what the fundamental subject matter of philosophy presumably concerns, I (nevertheless) still occasionally come across philosophical writings ...
1
vote
2answers
58 views

Is patriotism ethical? [duplicate]

In the 24th lecture of Steven Smiths Political Philosophy class at Yale available on ItunesU, he says that Patriotism is unethical because it implies "a blind deference to tradition" and sums it up in ...
3
votes
2answers
176 views

Who are the most prominent Christian philosophers of the 21st century?

The question's title says it all. Who are the most prominent Christian philosophers of the 21st century (if there are any) and why?
1
vote
2answers
51 views

Formal philosophy

I heard that there are philosophy classes that teach philosophy in a very rigorous and formal and mathematical manner. Are there books that do this? I would like some recommendations.
2
votes
1answer
41 views

What are the differences betweeen post-apocalyptic and anarchical or dystopic? [closed]

When I get into the definitions for fictions like novels and movies, I've became a bit confused. For example, there are some post-apocalyptic fictions and when there is an authority in that fiction it ...
-2
votes
1answer
61 views

The many Utopias [closed]

I am looking for philosophical texts that tackle the subject of Utopia. This is what I was able to find, that wasn't a novel. The Republic (ca. 380 BC) by Plato - one of the earliest conceptions of ...
2
votes
1answer
27 views

Critique of Korsgaard's polis-comparison?

I am currently reading Korsgaard's Self-Constitution in the Ethics of Plato and Kant (which you can find here). I was wondering if the argumentative step from an injustice in the perfectly arranged ...
0
votes
2answers
60 views

Why do we formalize conceptions?

Why do we always try to formalize conceptions? Let's take the naive conception of sets, why do we try to write down a list of axioms? what do we earn in doing so? I'm looking especially for ...
3
votes
3answers
82 views

How to approach study of PPE for the, non-achedemic, layman?

I'm a non-academic type (I left school at 16) who is also dyslexic with attention deficit problems. I've recently become interested in the study of philosophy, politics and economics (To answer ...
1
vote
1answer
101 views

Difference between implication/conditional and logical entailment?

What is the difference between the implication/conditional truth function and the notion of logical entailment? My naive understanding as a computer programmer is that the conditional is a function ...
3
votes
1answer
118 views

Understanding philosophy from a mathematicians perspective

(I'm new, so please downvote, re-tag, flag, close or delete the question as appropriate. I'd appreciate a comment about why it was done.) I was reading this, and came across the paragraph Working ...
0
votes
1answer
39 views

A reference which justifies “The use of Philosophy” [duplicate]

Recently I've got into an argument with a friend of mine about a cliché, "What is the use of philosophy?". Well we didn't discuss it that much but I want to keep the argument based on some ...
6
votes
1answer
65 views

(Where) did Leibniz write “Sans les mathématiques on ne pénètre point…”?

Sans les mathématiques on ne pénètre point au fond de la philosophie. Sans la philosophie on ne pénètre point au fond des mathématiques. Sans les deux on ne pénètre au fond de rien. The above ...
3
votes
2answers
242 views

What exactly is metaphysical possibility?

In the literature about the epistemology of modality I stumbled upon various types of possibilities, e.g. epistemic possibility, metaphysical possibility. I have a rough unterstanding of these, but ...
3
votes
0answers
62 views

Literature on ascetic philosophy

wondering if anyone can point me in the right direction. I am a high school student exploring a possible topic on Ethan Frome for literature class. I am trying to understand Ethan's moral values ...
2
votes
1answer
163 views

Examples of philosophers that are neither analytic nor continental

Are there any examples of philosophers who did (or do) neither analytic nor continental philosophy, but rather practiced (or practice) a harmonious mix between the two?
3
votes
1answer
53 views

Suggestions for critical writing

I was wondering if anyone had any tips for critiquing a philosophical work. I know this is a vast topic in itself, but I really want to start analyzing philosophical writings and engaging with the ...
3
votes
0answers
42 views

What is the analytic-synthetic dilemma concerning existence?

Reading a paper on Descartes I found the following summary of criticism: Stuart Hampshire, on the one hand, emphasizing the indubitability required of the principle by Descartes, concludes that ...
-2
votes
2answers
142 views

Can homosexuality be discussed philosophically?

My friend tells me it depends on how you view homosexuality. He says if you see it as a belief/religion, then yes. Otherwise no. What do you think?
4
votes
2answers
128 views

What do philosophers mean by 'conceivable'?

Philosophers, especially in analytic metaphysics, often talk about the conceivability of things. Here are some examples: I can conceive a perfect being, therefore, a perfect being is possible. ...
5
votes
11answers
410 views

What do we mean by the term “Number of things”?

I am reading the book "The Number-System of Algebra (2nd edition)." I have some problems with the the first article: "Number". The author has confined the concept of number of things to the groups ...
1
vote
0answers
46 views

History of determinism

Does determinism have its roots in logic? When was determinism as a discrete discipline first recorded? I am just interested in the historical aspect at the moment.
4
votes
1answer
59 views

Recommendations for reading in Russell's Mathematical Philosophy

I am looking for any suggestions for research-level survey articles that expose Russell's type theory (in the context of his philosophy of mathematics). Of particular interest are: Russell's reasons ...
1
vote
1answer
51 views

Philosophy of Synergy and Collaboration [closed]

So I'm trying to study sociology and the science of human collaboration. Are there particularly throrogh books on this topic that anyone knows of? And indeed I am looking mainly at the philosophy ...
1
vote
1answer
24 views

What authors differentiate between ability and freedom?

On one view, I am free to fly, because no other person renders it physically impossible for me to do so. On another view, I am unfree to fly, because I am not able to. The act of flying is not ...
1
vote
1answer
49 views

Where can I find a compendium of syllogistic summaries?

My professors often neatly summarize important historical philosophical arguments in short syllogisms. Often the syllogisms have the same effect that the author's n*10^2 page essay about the argument. ...
0
votes
0answers
45 views

Source of “98.9 percent” employment rate figure in London Times

The Times of London reported, on 15 August 1998, that In the U.S., where the number of philosophy graduates has increased by five percent a year during the 1990s, only a very few go on to become ...
2
votes
2answers
73 views

What are some good texts to study the philosophy of self-reference?

I was curious if anyone could recommend a good text to get a foothold on some the main issues regarding self-reference. I am interested in the mathematical and philosophy of language aspects of ...
4
votes
1answer
90 views

Responses to the bricklayer critique of Dewey's definition of Inquiry

Apparently, Russell and Dewey had a very provocative debate in the philosophical literature of their time. Unfortunately I am only familiar with Russell's side of the debate, and want to learn more ...
1
vote
1answer
60 views

Basic Greek language resource for Philosophy purposes?

Sometimes when I'm reading philosophy some greek terms become a problem (I'm looking at you, Heidegger), and I have to keep checking the Internet for translations and explanations. I've already ...
1
vote
0answers
34 views

Measuring freedom in republican theories?

The liberal, or pure negative, approach to freedom, which identifies freedom with non-interference, often allows for freedom to be measured, e.g. in the works of Ian Carter and Matthew Kramer. Are ...
1
vote
1answer
51 views

What is the relation between modern political philosophy and politics? [closed]

I am thinking about authors like Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum, as well as current debates about e.g. negative and positive freedom or liberal and republican notions of freedom. Are there political ...
0
votes
1answer
102 views

Determinism vs Indeterminism debate

I need to find an article/website/book which offers a brief survey of the dispute determinism vs indeterminism (with no or really few references to the free-will problem). I need them for a high ...
3
votes
0answers
24 views

What is Jonathan Schaffers view on modality?

Jonathan Schaffer is famous for his Priority Monism, or (metaphysical) Monism in general. He has worked on Fundamentality, Truthmaking and Causation among others. In 'Monism. The Priority of the ...
2
votes
1answer
109 views

Understanding Rawls' Justice as Fairness?

I take 'Justice as Fairness' to be the name of Rawls' political theory on how we should basically live together. As SEP states in an article on Rawls, his most discussed work is his theory of a ...
2
votes
3answers
143 views

Fundamental Questions of Contemporary Philosophy

In John Searles 'Making the Social World" (2010), the chapter 'the purpose of this book' starts with declaring the following question as a fundamental question of contemporary philosophy: How, if ...