an ancient Greek school of philosophy founded at Athens by Zeno of Citium. The school taught that virtue, the highest good, is based on knowledge, and that the wise live in harmony with the divine Reason (also identified with Fate and Providence) that governs nature, and are indifferent to the ...

learn more… | top users | synonyms (2)

2
votes
0answers
36 views

Defining the stoic concept of Oikeiosis

What is a helpful definition of the stoic concept of Oikeiosis (οἰκείωσις)? And what are the contexts of each of those definitions? Does the concept change over time?
2
votes
3answers
159 views

Truth is an opinion and not fact - Stoicism

According to Marcus Aurelius Everything we hear is an opinion, not a fact. Everything we see is a perspective, not the truth. I found the quote here. What does this mean? How this relate to what we ...
3
votes
1answer
64 views

Why do the Stoics Matter?

Aside from overcoming the Fallacy of Four Terms, what were the major contributions of Stoic syllogisms? What did they provide that Aristotelian syllogisms could not? And, what were their major ...
3
votes
2answers
99 views

What does Epictetus mean when he says “it is better for your slave to be bad than for you to be unhappy”?

This sentence is taken from Epictetus' Enchiridion (The Manual). I have read and reread this sentence over again but can't understand what he means by it. Full context where this sentence takes ...
2
votes
2answers
113 views

Was Marcus Aurelius the first philosopher-king?

Marcus Aurelius, well-known for his Meditations, in the second century AD, was a Stoic philosopher and also emperor of the Roman empire. Plato, in his Republic, advised that the ideal rulers of his ...
3
votes
1answer
65 views

How can we have responsibility in the Stoic's deterministic universe?

I read the following in Anthony Kenny's 'A New History of Philosophy' book. It is a paraphrase from Chrysippus the Stoic philosopher Nothing can escape Nature's laws, but despite the determinism of ...
2
votes
2answers
369 views

How might one counter this criticism of Stoicism by Bertrand Russell?

Reading about Stoicism, I have encountered a criticism to which I cannot form a strong counter-argument. Did anyone or can anyone provide a rebuttal to the following argument against Stoicism? ...
6
votes
1answer
182 views

Hellenistic schools of philosophy as therapies

Martha C. Nussbaum argues in The Therapy of Desire: Theory and Practice in Hellenistic Ethics that all three major Hellenistic schools (Epicureanism, Stoicism, Skeptics) shared a practical, ...
2
votes
1answer
220 views

Why did the Stoics believe that both children & animals have no emotions?

In the preface to the 2nd edition of The fragility of goodness, Martha Nussbaum writes: In order to be adequate, the Stoic theory needs three major sorts of modifications. First it needs a ...
3
votes
1answer
159 views

Translation of a greek word in Stoic thought

I'm reading this article on Ariston of Chios. On the 9th page of the article Schofield uses " ἡγεμονιχόν", stating that the "What Ariston had noticed was that, although committed to a plurality of ...
7
votes
1answer
695 views

Why did Epicureanism become “the main opponent” of Stoicism?

I was reading about Epicureanism on Wikipedia, and there I saw that, apparently, Epicureanism was in conflict with Stoicism and Platonism. I then read up on those two philosophies, and well, they do ...
2
votes
2answers
296 views

Clarification of this stoic quote by Marcus Aurelius in Meditations, “Art thou angry with him whose armpits stink?”

Consider this quote by Marcus Aurelius: Art thou angry with him whose armpits stink ? art thou angry with him whose mouth smells foul ? What good will this anger do thee ? He has such a ...
4
votes
3answers
201 views

Can anyone recommend publications of Seneca's work?

Having read Penguin Great Ideas : On the Shortness of Life, I am keen to read further works of Seneca. Can anyone recommend any publications? I have stumbled upon Anger, Mercy, Revenge (Complete ...
7
votes
2answers
3k views

Is virtue necessary to achieve eudaimonia?

Stoics believe that virtue (ἀρετή) is necessary and sufficient to achieve happiness (εὐδαιμονία). It was the "sufficient" portion that marked Stoics out from other ancient philosophy, but I suspect ...
11
votes
1answer
917 views

What are the main points of criticism of the ancient Stoic school vis-a-vis the system of philosophy of the Epicureans?

What was the main criticism of the ancient Stoic school of philosophy with respect to the system of philosophy of the Epicureans?