an ancient Greek school of philosophy founded at Athens by Zeno of Citium. The school taught that virtue, the highest good, is based on knowledge, and that the wise live in harmony with the divine Reason (also identified with Fate and Providence) that governs nature, and are indifferent to the ...

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Nature, mind, soul in Meditations by Marcus Aurelius

It's my first time reading Meditations and I am finding the book quite interesting. Marcus often mentions Nature, mind and soul. To me there seems to be no difference. But I guess they have ...
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213 views

What does Marcus Aurelius mean by 'sympathetic link'?

I am reading Meditation by Marcus Aurelius and finding difficulty in understanding this sentence: When they (agitations of the flesh) make their way into your thoughts, through the sympathetic ...
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80 views

How did the idea of fate arise?

Once I read that Stoics thought that both humans and animals have no free will, because they are just dragged by fate against their will. How did they come to this idea without any knowledge of brain ...
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How did the ideas of a poor slave like Epitectus spread before the printing press? [closed]

Was he literate? Even if he was, how did his ideas spread during his own lifetime? Was word of mouth that contagious back then? Were people writing down his ideas on stone tablets and passing them ...
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52 views

What is the causal connection between virtues and eudaimonea in virtue ethics?

Eudaimonea is typically mistranslated as "happiness" (subjective mental states) when it is an objective state of fulfillment of purpose. (I consider that to be the central definition of the concept ...
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Stoic Aphorisms?

What are some poignant aphorisms that a practitioner of stoicism could internalize to help remain stoic throughout their day. Think motivational calendar and you'll know what I'm after. I'm aware ...
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Can a beginner in Philosophy understand the following books?

I know that Pythagoras is the basis for all the Philosophy (and probably mathematics). I ordered The Pythagorean Sourcebook and Library but I already have the following Philosophical books: ...
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Where to turn to after Montaigne?

If one liked primary and secondary works by and about Michel de Montaigne (1533–1592; e.g. his essays and biography) where could one turn to next? The Stoics and Nassim Nicholas Taleb come to mind. ...
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Marcus Aurelius on Books

Marcus Aurelius says "But cast away the thirst after books, that thou mayest not die murmuring, but cheerfully, truly, and from thy heart thankful to the gods" in the end of the third paragraph of his ...
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What are the key differences between Plato's Republic and Zeno's?

Zeno's Republic was almost certainly written as a response of some kind to Plato's famous work. What differences between Plato's ideal society and his Stoic utopia did Zeno wish to highlight and in ...
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288 views

Context of “one tongue but two ears”

I teach once every few weeks for an hour or two to a group of youngsters (ca. age ten). The lesson is provided to me, so it is pretty much cookbook, and is mostly about little activities and anecdotes,...
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286 views

Source for (Stoic?) quote on death/(im)mortality

In Eckhart Tolle's book The Power of Now, there is the following fragment of a question that the author was asked: I read about a stoic philosopher in ancient Greece who, when he was told that ...
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Truth is an opinion and not fact - Stoicism

According to Marcus Aurelius Everything we hear is an opinion, not a fact. Everything we see is a perspective, not the truth. I found the quote here. What does this mean? How this relate to what we ...
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93 views

Why do the Stoics Matter?

Aside from overcoming the Fallacy of Four Terms, what were the major contributions of Stoic syllogisms? What did they provide that Aristotelian syllogisms could not? And, what were their major ...
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244 views

What does Epictetus mean when he says “it is better for your slave to be bad than for you to be unhappy”?

This sentence is taken from Epictetus' Enchiridion (The Manual). I have read and reread this sentence over again but can't understand what he means by it. Full context where this sentence takes place:...
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253 views

Was Marcus Aurelius the first philosopher-king?

Marcus Aurelius, well-known for his Meditations, in the second century AD, was a Stoic philosopher and also emperor of the Roman empire. Plato, in his Republic, advised that the ideal rulers of his ...
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116 views

How can we have responsibility in the Stoic's deterministic universe?

I read the following in Anthony Kenny's 'A New History of Philosophy' book. It is a paraphrase from Chrysippus the Stoic philosopher Nothing can escape Nature's laws, but despite the determinism of ...
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How might one counter Bertrand Russell's criticism of Stoicism as “not true” and “insincere”?

Reading about Stoicism, I have encountered a criticism to which I cannot form a strong counter-argument. Did anyone or can anyone provide a rebuttal to the following argument against Stoicism? ...
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Are Hellenistic schools of philosophy also therapeutic regimes?

Martha C. Nussbaum argues in The Therapy of Desire: Theory and Practice in Hellenistic Ethics that all three major Hellenistic schools (Epicureanism, Stoicism, Skeptics) shared a practical, ...
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398 views

Why did the Stoics believe that both children & animals have no emotions?

In the preface to the 2nd edition of The fragility of goodness, Martha Nussbaum writes: In order to be adequate, the Stoic theory needs three major sorts of modifications. First it needs a ...
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172 views

Translation of a greek word in Stoic thought

I'm reading this article on Ariston of Chios. On the 9th page of the article Schofield uses " ἡγεμονιχόν", stating that the "What Ariston had noticed was that, although committed to a plurality of ...
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861 views

Why did Epicureanism become “the main opponent” of Stoicism?

I was reading about Epicureanism on Wikipedia, and there I saw that, apparently, Epicureanism was in conflict with Stoicism and Platonism. I then read up on those two philosophies, and well, they do ...
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Clarification of this stoic quote by Marcus Aurelius in Meditations, “Art thou angry with him whose armpits stink?”

Consider this quote by Marcus Aurelius: Art thou angry with him whose armpits stink ? art thou angry with him whose mouth smells foul ? What good will this anger do thee ? He has such a ...
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304 views

Can anyone recommend publications of Seneca's work?

Having read Penguin Great Ideas : On the Shortness of Life, I am keen to read further works of Seneca. Can anyone recommend any publications? I have stumbled upon Anger, Mercy, Revenge (Complete ...
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Is virtue necessary to achieve eudaimonia?

Stoics believe that virtue (ἀρετή) is necessary and sufficient to achieve happiness (εὐδαιμονία). It was the "sufficient" portion that marked Stoics out from other ancient philosophy, but I suspect ...
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What are the main points of criticism of the ancient Stoic school vis-a-vis the system of philosophy of the Epicureans?

What was the main criticism of the ancient Stoic school of philosophy with respect to the system of philosophy of the Epicureans?