The study of terms and their use.

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What are available literature, essays and thoughts on 'being spontaneous' [on hold]

I am looking for thoughts on the term 'spontaneity'. What does it mean for someone to be spontaneous in the common sense? What I found was some line of German literature starting with Kant, but here, ...
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2answers
39 views

what does “Justified” mean? [closed]

I saw the term JTB (Justified true belief). What is the act of Justificaton ? What makes somthing "Just" ? Cheers Sharon
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1answer
64 views

What is the history of the concepts “sound” and “valid”?

Could someone tell me when the current terminological distinction between "sound" and "valid" was first made in the development of logic? If the distinction was first drawn in writings in ...
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70 views

How can I know that I know something? [closed]

This also a question about what is the definition of knowledge.
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1answer
24 views

I “random” meaning with known probability? [duplicate]

Can I say that a phenominon(e.g. like a coin flip) Is not deterministic but also not 50/50 ,rather completly unpredictable ? Is there a term for such behaviour ? Is that what "random" mean or is ...
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1answer
19 views

when we express in words can it be anything else but an opinion based on learning and experience? [closed]

When we think and later express in works can it be anything else but an opinion, a summary of perceived learning and experience? Facts? There are more disproved facts in science than accepted ones. ...
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119 views

What does it mean to understand something? [closed]

First, suppose what's happening when I say I don't understand something (let it be a proof of some mathematical theorem). What does it mean? Probably that I can't see all logical connections between ...
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47 views

How is this called: not believing in religious doctrine but accepting religious institutions? [closed]

If a member of a (say, Christian) church does not believe in God (e.g. thinks god is a man-made concept) and the surrounding metaphysics but believes that the church as an institution serves a ...
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152 views

What differentiates the scientific method from other methods

From the controversy in this question, I would like to know what differentiates "the scientific method" from other method. I'm asking for differentiation, rather than a definition, because ...
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53 views

Is there a formal, or a rigorous, definition of the 'consists in' relation?

Philosophers often describe one thing as consisting in some other things. However, I've never seen a rigorous definition of the 'consists in' relation. Does such a definition exist?
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Is there a philosophical definition for “difference” and “similarity”? When are 2 logical arguments “different” or “similar”? [closed]

Is there a philosophical definition for "difference" and "similarity"? When are 2 logically valid arguments "different" or "similar"?
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60 views

Is there a theory in philosophy which holds that “ignorance is bliss”?

What is the philosophical view of believing that ignorance is bliss, or that knowledge of yourself or the world is bad for you?
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1answer
61 views

Are Hume's “relations of ideas” the same as analytic a priori judgments?

In his Enquiry concerning human understanding, Hume provides the following definition: All the objects of human reason or enquiry may naturally be divided into two kinds, to wit, Relations of ...
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What does *remediable* mean to philosophers? (Example and context provided)

In his essay, Knowledge of Logic, Paul Boghossian writes Finally, on the inferential path, there is the question whether it is irremediably true that rule‐circular arguments provide no ...
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1answer
60 views

Another name for “non-events”

According to Davidson, a sentence like Brutus stabbed Caesar can be represented as ∃e.stab(Brutus,Caesar), where e is a reified event. Is there a term for something that's not an event? I first ...
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1answer
42 views

What does *substantive* in the term 'substantive normative claim' mean?

In Sharon Street's paper, "Nothing "Really" Matters, but That's Not What Matters", she uses the phrase substantive normative-claim: I take it that this is because Parfit is thinking of the claim ...
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1answer
172 views

Material vs formal logic?

I would like to know how material logic differs from formal logic. From the little that I'm aware of, it is apparently the case that material logic concerns itself with the truth of the content of an ...
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31 views

Terminology for Dialectic

Consider a usual situation where somebody presents a thesis and an supporting argument, somebody else makes a objection, the former replies with a counter-objection, and so on. I wish to know if ...
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1answer
92 views

What is the name of the “pizza argument” against an all-powerful being?

The "pizza" argument against the existence of an all-powerful being goes something like this: Suppose for a contradiction that there exists an all-powerful being. Then there cannot exist a pizza ...
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4answers
136 views

“This sentence is true”. Is there a word for this class of statement?

Is there a term that means "A self referential statement which is true if (and because) it is true and false if (and because) it is false"? "This sentence is a lie" is a paradox in the sense of ...
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2answers
57 views

Is the idea of a multiverse considered metaphysics? [duplicate]

I know that metaphysics has to do with the fundamental nature of reality. I am just not sure if a multiverse is considered fundamental
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1answer
52 views

Is the phrase “logic and reason” grammatically correct?

I have always interpreted logic to mean a systematic form (premise-reason-conclusion) of reason. So it seems that you are saying one word (reason) and a branch of that word (logic). But the "and" ...
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3answers
105 views

discerning among ethics morality principles virtues, and etiquette

Although I have studied these terms in even my own language, eventually, could anyone possibly throw a light on them, specially in such a way that I could differentiate between them better, as I have ...
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3answers
64 views

Is there a term for materialistic non-determinism?

I was trying to explain to someone that an underlying assumption of science is ... and then couldn't come up with a term to describe it. What I'm hoping to give a name to, is the idea that the world ...
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1answer
24 views

How can I explain the soundness of a rule with respect to the semantics of a truth table?

The question is a mouthful but it comes from an exercise in which I was asked to explain why modus ponens is sound with respect to the semantics expressed by the truth-table. Many things are not ...
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2answers
57 views

What's the term for winning an argument using the elegance of manipulation?

Arguments can be won by utilizing a mixture of ethos, pathos, and logos. Logos may either appeal using real logic (facts), or using deceptive logic (non-facts). What's the term for deceiving ...
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1answer
48 views

Fungible Money Question

Suppose that there are two people, A and B. Each has a physical dollar bill. Each donates the dollar bill to an organization. The organization buys something for a dollar. First suppose that the ...
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Is there a philosophical term for this kind of error/mistake/fallacy?

Say, A (language expression) describes B (subject matter). But one claims that A determines the existence of B. I consider this an error/mistake/fallacy because I think B is prior to A. If I am ...
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57 views

Is it correct to say that philosophy is not necessarily connected with the real world?

I mean, I imagine philosophy as: "given a model (which could be a model of the reality) and some rules (rule could be the one by rationality) try to make inference on the rules to get other rules" ...
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102 views

Which physical phenomena are not objects?

I come from the world of OOP programming and I find OOP terms convenient to describe everything that has properties or fields and possibly some actions that may be applied to its properties/fields. ...
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1answer
65 views

Is a posteriori analytic philosophy just science?

Analytic philosophy primarily tries to solve problems a priori. Science can be considered to be synthetic a posteriori, based of some a priori theoretical framework. But would any conclusions that you ...
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178 views

What is the term for a statement that becomes true by being uttered?

I though those were called tautologies, but I just found out that that is incorrect. Is there a term for a statement like "I have lied", that becomes irrefutably true as soon as I say it? In this ...
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1answer
81 views

What is a neat explanation?

I have hear of a person who claims that his explanations is a neat explanation. He says this almost as if this makes it better or more probable. What does this exactly mean? I suspect it has something ...
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Is loyalty an intention or a behavior or something else?

I'm new to philosophy so please forgive me if I'm ignorant of basic concepts and terminology. I've googled around for definitions of loyalty, and most seem to define it as a "virtue" or "devotion" or ...
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What does it really mean for something to be tolerated?

A word that often comes up when discussing societies with problems is that everyone needs to tolerate those that are different, or hold different beliefs; we need to encourage tolerance, and so on... ...
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56 views

The reversed naturalistic fallacy

It is a naturalistic fallacy if someone concludes from there is something to something ought to be. If you reverse that order you have someone concluding from something ought to be to there is ...
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59 views

What are some examples of “data” in philosophy?

I was trying to figure out what the word "data" means. The dictionary even provides a special entry for philosophy: things known or assumed as facts, making the basis of reasoning or calculation. ...
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48 views

Looking for specific term to describe those ideas which are commonly held without proper justification or questioning

These ideas might be true/false, but people just assume them. An example would be: you need some kind of money/currency for a civilization to be functional.
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Are there any comprehensive undergrad level philosophy books about definitions?

Although I believe that I now have some vague idea about what the fundamental subject matter of philosophy presumably concerns, I (nevertheless) still occasionally come across philosophical writings ...
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104 views

“pleasure” vs “happiness”

With regards to the field of philosophy, are there any notable precise definitions of "pleasure" and "happiness"? How does "pleasure" compare to "happiness" and vice-versa?
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1answer
452 views

Difference between implication/conditional and logical entailment?

What is the difference between the implication/conditional truth function and the notion of logical entailment? My naive understanding as a computer programmer is that the conditional is a function ...
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58 views

What is thinking the universe is made up called? [closed]

There is a theory in which a person thinks that everything he sees and everything he knows is made up in his head. He is the only one that thinks and the others are just fragments of his imagination. ...
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2answers
73 views

Is there a consistent definition of free will? [duplicate]

See also: What is a mathematical description of free will? Is free will reconcilable with a purely physical world? What is the difference between free-will and randomness and or non-determinism? ...
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318 views

Tarski's truth definition

I am a Math student currently taking my Master's Degree, and last semester I took a course on Mathematical Logic (an introductory one). One of the subjects we covered there was (of course!) Tarski's ...
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About existence and related terminology

Is there a difference between when a person says 'I exists.', compared to the same person saying ' I'm existing.'? Is the person saying at the one time 'I exist.' saying he exists at a certain moment ...
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3answers
94 views

What is the word for… human thinking / imagination / understanding is limited by human experience

(Forgive my lack of accurate wording, English is not my first language, in addition I'm not a philosophy expert.) I cannot recall the word I have seen once, describing a theory where human ...
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2answers
87 views

About Supervenience and how it is used

What is supervenience and is there controversy over its definition? Does it have to do with the list of qualities of two 'things' being compared?
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84 views

A philosophy where technology is forsaken and nature embraced

There is a particular philosophy that I am trying to find the proper word to describe. An exemple of this philosophy is from a short story I once read (From Jack London's short story "To Build a ...
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9answers
426 views

How is “time” defined in modern philosophy?

We know the definition of "time" of Augustine of Hippo: "If no one asks me, I know: if I wish to explain it to one that asketh, I know not" (Conf.). What is time? Philosophically, what can be ...
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3k views

What is the difference between intension and intention?

What is the difference between intention and intension? If one intends to do something is this intent part of the concept of intension?