The study of terms and their use.

learn more… | top users | synonyms (1)

2
votes
1answer
38 views

Fungible Money Question

Suppose that there are two people, A and B. Each has a physical dollar bill. Each donates the dollar bill to an organization. The organization buys something for a dollar. First suppose that the ...
2
votes
3answers
44 views

Is there a philosophical term for this kind of error/mistake/fallacy?

Say, A (language expression) describes B (subject matter). But one claims that A determines the existence of B. I consider this an error/mistake/fallacy because I think B is prior to A. If I am ...
0
votes
3answers
53 views

Is it correct to say that philosophy is not necessarily connected with the real world?

I mean, I imagine philosophy as: "given a model (which could be a model of the reality) and some rules (rule could be the one by rationality) try to make inference on the rules to get other rules" ...
5
votes
3answers
98 views

Which physical phenomena are not objects?

I come from the world of OOP programming and I find OOP terms convenient to describe everything that has properties or fields and possibly some actions that may be applied to its properties/fields. ...
2
votes
1answer
55 views

Is a posteriori analytic philosophy just science?

Analytic philosophy primarily tries to solve problems a priori. Science can be considered to be synthetic a posteriori, based of some a priori theoretical framework. But would any conclusions that you ...
6
votes
3answers
157 views

What is the term for a statement that becomes true by being uttered?

I though those were called tautologies, but I just found out that that is incorrect. Is there a term for a statement like "I have lied", that becomes irrefutably true as soon as I say it? In this ...
1
vote
1answer
78 views

What is a neat explanation?

I have hear of a person who claims that his explanations is a neat explanation. He says this almost as if this makes it better or more probable. What does this exactly mean? I suspect it has something ...
0
votes
0answers
12 views

Is loyalty an intention or a behavior or something else?

I'm new to philosophy so please forgive me if I'm ignorant of basic concepts and terminology. I've googled around for definitions of loyalty, and most seem to define it as a "virtue" or "devotion" or ...
1
vote
4answers
57 views

What does it really mean for something to be tolerated?

A word that often comes up when discussing societies with problems is that everyone needs to tolerate those that are different, or hold different beliefs; we need to encourage tolerance, and so on... ...
5
votes
1answer
52 views

The reversed naturalistic fallacy

It is a naturalistic fallacy if someone concludes from there is something to something ought to be. If you reverse that order you have someone concluding from something ought to be to there is ...
3
votes
2answers
58 views

What are some examples of “data” in philosophy?

I was trying to figure out what the word "data" means. The dictionary even provides a special entry for philosophy: things known or assumed as facts, making the basis of reasoning or calculation. ...
1
vote
3answers
47 views

Looking for specific term to describe those ideas which are commonly held without proper justification or questioning

These ideas might be true/false, but people just assume them. An example would be: you need some kind of money/currency for a civilization to be functional.
2
votes
2answers
62 views

Are there any comprehensive undergrad level philosophy books about definitions?

Although I believe that I now have some vague idea about what the fundamental subject matter of philosophy presumably concerns, I (nevertheless) still occasionally come across philosophical writings ...
3
votes
1answer
93 views

“pleasure” vs “happiness”

With regards to the field of philosophy, are there any notable precise definitions of "pleasure" and "happiness"? How does "pleasure" compare to "happiness" and vice-versa?
1
vote
1answer
191 views

Difference between implication/conditional and logical entailment?

What is the difference between the implication/conditional truth function and the notion of logical entailment? My naive understanding as a computer programmer is that the conditional is a function ...
1
vote
0answers
55 views

What is thinking the universe is made up called? [closed]

There is a theory in which a person thinks that everything he sees and everything he knows is made up in his head. He is the only one that thinks and the others are just fragments of his imagination. ...
2
votes
2answers
59 views

Is there a consistent definition of free will? [duplicate]

See also: What is a mathematical description of free will? Is free will reconcilable with a purely physical world? What is the difference between free-will and randomness and or non-determinism? ...
8
votes
3answers
268 views

Tarski's truth definition

I am a Math student currently taking my Master's Degree, and last semester I took a course on Mathematical Logic (an introductory one). One of the subjects we covered there was (of course!) Tarski's ...
3
votes
2answers
119 views

About existence and related terminology

Is there a difference between when a person says 'I exists.', compared to the same person saying ' I'm existing.'? Is the person saying at the one time 'I exist.' saying he exists at a certain moment ...
0
votes
3answers
83 views

What is the word for… human thinking / imagination / understanding is limited by human experience

(Forgive my lack of accurate wording, English is not my first language, in addition I'm not a philosophy expert.) I cannot recall the word I have seen once, describing a theory where human ...
3
votes
2answers
84 views

About Supervenience and how it is used

What is supervenience and is there controversy over its definition? Does it have to do with the list of qualities of two 'things' being compared?
1
vote
3answers
83 views

A philosophy where technology is forsaken and nature embraced

There is a particular philosophy that I am trying to find the proper word to describe. An exemple of this philosophy is from a short story I once read (From Jack London's short story "To Build a ...
9
votes
8answers
384 views

How is “time” defined in modern philosophy?

We know the definition of "time" of Augustine of Hippo: "If no one asks me, I know: if I wish to explain it to one that asketh, I know not" (Conf.). What is time? Philosophically, what can be ...
2
votes
1answer
1k views

What is the difference between intension and intention?

What is the difference between intention and intension? If one intends to do something is this intent part of the concept of intension?
1
vote
1answer
58 views

If A: P implies Q and B: Q implies P, then A is the *what* of B?

I have two propositions A: P implies Q B: Q implies P is A then the converse of B, or is there a term that is more exact?
2
votes
4answers
157 views

Is it possible to gain a lot without losing much? [closed]

This might be part of a more general question about the concept of gain and loss. If it is, please refer me to that. My question is: Is it possible to say that we always lose as much as we gain? ...
3
votes
2answers
12k views

What is the difference between Rule Utilitarianism and Act Utilitarianism?

Based on the definitions given by Wikipedia , Rule Utilitarianism and Act Utilitarianism both seems to imply the same meaning Rule Utilitarianism Action is right as it conforms to a rule that ...
5
votes
4answers
327 views

How do the meanings of *to exist*, *to be*, and *real* differ?

What definition of to exist, of to be, and of real preponderates contemporary philosophy? How do the terms differ from one another?
1
vote
1answer
105 views

What is a 'Brain State?'

I was recently reading on this, but found that a complete definition was vague. What does a brain state mean? Thanks!
1
vote
3answers
91 views

When it's stated that human beings are equal, what kind of equality is usually implied?

I was reading an essay where the author seems to define equality among people as mathematical equality. Of course, this seemed to be overly simplistic so I wanted to look for a better definition. I ...
2
votes
2answers
90 views

Does entelechy have a contrary?

As I understand it, entelechy is a term that is associated with Aristotle who used it in the sense of the actualisation or complete realisation of an entity's potential. As far as we know, was ...
0
votes
1answer
36 views

Nomenclatural/Semantic Question in re: Semiotics

I just had a quick nomenclatural/semantic question regarding the usage of the term "semiotics". Thought this would be a good place to ask it, so here I am. Anyways, my question has to do with using ...
1
vote
1answer
43 views

Looking for an epistemology term

I have tried googling for the term but didn't find it. It's an -ism that refers to the fact that you can only know truth or have knowledge within your own experience. It's different then moral ...
3
votes
1answer
456 views

How does Hannah Arendt define “freedom?”

Looking at this: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/arendt/ By freedom Arendt does not mean the ability to choose among a set of possible >alternatives (the freedom of choice so dear to the ...
2
votes
7answers
352 views

What is ethics really about? (the goal or the means)

I have always assumed, perhaps naively, that the basic goal of ethics is to provide judgements of possible outcomes of one's actions, and thus also advice on the way one should act. I just realised ...
2
votes
3answers
105 views

Why do we tend towards discretizing things around and within us?

Why do we tend towards discretizing things around and within us? Do our senses (for space and time) fool us into this notion all the way into the need for discretizing abstractions themselves, e.g. An ...
-1
votes
1answer
61 views

What is the philosophical parlance for saying: “Why (should I) care?”

What is the philosophical parlance for saying: "Why (should I) care?", in which I'll loosely define "care" as an inclination towards one action over another. p.s. what are proper tags for this ...
2
votes
2answers
44 views

Is Aristotle referring to both Posterior Analytics and Prior Analytics when referring to simply “Analytics”?

In Book I, Part 2 of Aristotle's Rhetoric, Aristotle writes: With regard to the persuasion achieved by proof or apparent proof: just as in dialectic there is induction on the one hand and ...
0
votes
1answer
55 views

A fallacy for unjustified blame

Is there a name or definition for the following fallacy (if you can even call it that): Peter decides that the team will use Product A. While using Product A, the team encounters problems. ...
1
vote
4answers
127 views

Is a pile of ants a, more or less, intelligent being?

Due to the definition of life an ant colony acts and reacts like a life form. There is even a "Ant colony optimization" Example Algorithm... Does this mean that the whole pile of ants, not its ...
1
vote
2answers
120 views

What fallacy/fallacies are present when a person discredits another person's arguments, by claiming they are not arguing for their own position?

Example: Person A argues that skipping breakfast has no effect on a person likelihood to gain weight. Person B takes the position opposite that breakfast in fact curves hunger and chances of putting ...
1
vote
1answer
74 views

Term for argument by extremes. Is it the same as straw man argument?

What is the correct term for the following logical fallacy? Speaker 1: I believe that increasing X by 5% would be a good thing. Speaker 2: By your logic, increasing X by 5000% would be a 1000x ...
4
votes
3answers
1k views

What is the difference between an 'idea' and a 'concept'?

What is the difference between an 'idea' and a 'concept'? Has a distinction between the two terms been settled and accepted by most modern philosophers?
1
vote
3answers
324 views

Truth for logicians, mathematicians, and philosophers

How does the logician define truth? What is the precise definition of truth for mathematicians? How does a philosopher define truth? What are the similarities and differences between these ...
1
vote
3answers
109 views

Can anything really be called complex?

What makes something complex? If someones mind can, in reasonable time, understand something considered complex, is it no longer complex? If it's the brain changing in presence of a complex object, ...
2
votes
3answers
374 views

Positive vs. Normative--Is falsification required?

I have some confusion on positive vs. normative. I am under the impression that a positive claim is a claim regarding a state of reality, while a normative claim is one of a value judgment on ...
4
votes
5answers
10k views

What exactly do 'objective' and 'subjective' mean in contemporary philosophy?

I'm pretty new to philosophy and I just have a quick question in regards to about how people use the terms 'objective' and 'subjective'. Does objective value mean anything that is independent of ...
0
votes
2answers
163 views

How do I understand “Begging the question” in philosophical context?

I understand the fallacy of begging the question's definition. but I can't see why this fallacy's name should be "begging the question." According to the Macmillan's English dictionary, "to beg the ...
11
votes
6answers
527 views

Interpret Bayesian probability as frequentist probability?

It is usually said that the Bayesian probability is a subjective concept, quantifying one's degree of belief in something, while the frequentist probability is the the fraction of certain outcomes ...
3
votes
3answers
6k views

What's the difference between a 'duty' and 'obligation'?

Background I enrolled in a class, The Philosophy of Human Rights. The authors of the course readings never use 'duty' and 'obligation' interchangeably, so I suspect that the terms may have distinct ...