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Thus, "panpsychism" in many German and English romantics is a philosophical oversimplification, althoughbut it does reflect some key aspects of their artistic mindset.

Thus, "panpsychism" in many German and English romantics is a philosophical oversimplification, although it does reflect some key aspects of their artistic mindset.

Thus, "panpsychism" in many German and English romantics is a philosophical oversimplification, but it does reflect some key aspects of their artistic mindset.

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Panpsychism, vitalism, or hylozoism (from Greek hyle, "matter", and zoion, "animal"), the label most commonly used at the time, and the Romantic movement itself, were a reaction against the mechanistic materialism, the "clockwork universe", (questionably) derived by many Enlightenment figures from Newton's Principia. It seemed to overlook "the sacred and the sublime" in nature, its enchanted liveliness, and accordingly left no place for a creative subject immersed into it, a major point for Romantic poets. For historical reasons itsthe movement's philosophical expression came to be associated with Spinoza, and so the animation and the edification of "living Nature" came hand in hand with its deification, pantheism, derived (also questionably) from Spinoza.

Kant's "vehemence" was not very effective, he accused Spinoza's God/Nature of incoherence just a few chapters after describing a very similar "intellectus archetypus" as logically conceivable. His idealist successors, Fichte and especially Schelling, adopted some of that archetypal insight into the animated Nature to solve the "conundrum of modern epistemology", which was laid barethe impenetrable veil of causal appearances created by Kant's critique of metaphysics. For the subsequent developments, including onin English romantic poetry, perhaps the most comprehensive source is Abrams's Natural Supernaturalism: Tradition and Revolution in Romantic Literature. Here is from Hirsch's review:

Later German romantics, like Hölderlin and Novalis, moved from "Spinozism" to a more up to date version of the "unity of nature"with the living Nature", idealism in the style of Schelling. Panpsychism and pantheism are routinely read into Blake's and Wordsworth's poetry by popularizers, see e.g. Albuquerque, but again one would have to apply the label loosely, in the sense of nature displaying some self-driving livingdriving force, and perhaps sense and purpose, being present in nature, irreducible to mechanistic causation.

On the other hand, Schlieper claims that his "study shows Blake as a lucid and consistent thinker whose philosophy is a subjective idealism, not unlike Berkeley's, directed against British empiricism", see his dissertation William Blake, Philosopher. There is also a good argument that the hylozoist/pantheist reading even of Spinoza himself is a misreading ("as to the view of certain people that I identify god with nature (taken as a kind of mass or corporeal matter), they are quite mistaken", Spinoza wrote for himself), and that he is better interpreted as a (notional) panentheist. In some respects Spinoza's position is more akin to Shankara's Advaita, see Dorter's Thought and Expression in Spinoza and Shankara. Dombrowski argues in Wordsworth's Panentheism that the same applies to Wordsworth:

Thus, "panpsychism" in many German and English romantics "panpsychism" is a philosophical oversimplification, although it does reflect some key aspects of their artistic mindset.

Panpsychism, vitalism, or hylozoism (from Greek hyle, "matter", and zoion, "animal"), the label most commonly used at the time, and the Romantic movement itself, were a reaction against the mechanistic materialism, the "clockwork universe", (questionably) derived by many Enlightenment figures from Newton's Principia. For historical reasons its philosophical expression came to be associated with Spinoza, and so the animation and edification of "living Nature" came hand in hand with its deification, pantheism, derived (also questionably) from Spinoza.

Kant's "vehemence" was not very effective, he accused Spinoza's God/Nature of incoherence just a few chapters after describing a very similar "intellectus archetypus" as logically conceivable. His idealist successors, Fichte and especially Schelling, adopted some of that archetypal insight into the animated Nature to solve the "conundrum of modern epistemology", which was laid bare by Kant's critique of metaphysics. For the subsequent developments, including on English romantic poetry, perhaps the most comprehensive source is Abrams's Natural Supernaturalism: Tradition and Revolution in Romantic Literature. Here is from Hirsch's review:

Later German romantics, like Hölderlin and Novalis, moved from "Spinozism" to a more up to date version of the "unity of nature", idealism in the style of Schelling. Panpsychism and pantheism are routinely read into Blake's and Wordsworth's poetry by popularizers, see e.g. Albuquerque, but again one would have to apply the label loosely, in the sense of some self-driving living force, and perhaps purpose, being present in nature, irreducible to mechanistic causation.

Schlieper claims that his "study shows Blake as a lucid and consistent thinker whose philosophy is a subjective idealism, not unlike Berkeley's, directed against British empiricism", see his dissertation William Blake, Philosopher. There is a good argument that the hylozoist/pantheist reading even of Spinoza himself is a misreading ("as to the view of certain people that I identify god with nature (taken as a kind of mass or corporeal matter), they are quite mistaken", Spinoza wrote for himself), and that he is better interpreted as a (notional) panentheist. In some respects Spinoza's position is more akin to Shankara's Advaita, see Dorter's Thought and Expression in Spinoza and Shankara. Dombrowski argues in Wordsworth's Panentheism that the same applies to Wordsworth:

Thus, in many German and English romantics "panpsychism" is a philosophical oversimplification, although it does reflect some key aspects of their artistic mindset.

Panpsychism, vitalism, or hylozoism (from Greek hyle, "matter", and zoion, "animal"), the label most commonly used at the time, and the Romantic movement itself, were a reaction against the mechanistic materialism, the "clockwork universe", (questionably) derived by many Enlightenment figures from Newton's Principia. It seemed to overlook "the sacred and the sublime" in nature, its enchanted liveliness, and accordingly left no place for a creative subject immersed into it, a major point for Romantic poets. For historical reasons the movement's philosophical expression came to be associated with Spinoza, and so the animation and the edification of "living Nature" came hand in hand with its deification, pantheism, derived (also questionably) from Spinoza.

Kant's "vehemence" was not very effective, he accused Spinoza's God/Nature of incoherence just a few chapters after describing a very similar "intellectus archetypus" as logically conceivable. His idealist successors, Fichte and especially Schelling, adopted some of that archetypal insight into the animated Nature to solve the "conundrum of modern epistemology", the impenetrable veil of causal appearances created by Kant's critique of metaphysics. For the subsequent developments, including in English romantic poetry, perhaps the most comprehensive source is Abrams's Natural Supernaturalism: Tradition and Revolution in Romantic Literature. Here is from Hirsch's review:

Later German romantics, like Hölderlin and Novalis, moved from "Spinozism" to a more up to date version of the "unity with the living Nature", idealism in the style of Schelling. Panpsychism and pantheism are routinely read into Blake's and Wordsworth's poetry by popularizers, see e.g. Albuquerque, but again one would have to apply the label loosely, in the sense of nature displaying some driving force, and perhaps sense and purpose, irreducible to mechanistic causation.

On the other hand, Schlieper claims that his "study shows Blake as a lucid and consistent thinker whose philosophy is a subjective idealism, not unlike Berkeley's, directed against British empiricism", see his dissertation William Blake, Philosopher. There is also a good argument that the hylozoist/pantheist reading even of Spinoza himself is a misreading ("as to the view of certain people that I identify god with nature (taken as a kind of mass or corporeal matter), they are quite mistaken", Spinoza wrote for himself), and that he is better interpreted as a (notional) panentheist. In some respects Spinoza's position is more akin to Shankara's Advaita, see Dorter's Thought and Expression in Spinoza and Shankara. Dombrowski argues in Wordsworth's Panentheism that the same applies to Wordsworth:

Thus, "panpsychism" in many German and English romantics is a philosophical oversimplification, although it does reflect some key aspects of their artistic mindset.

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Panpsychism, vitalism, or hylozoism (from Greek hyle, "matter", and zoion, "animal"), the label most commonly used at the time, and the Romantic movement itself, were a reaction against the mechanistic materialism, the "clockwork universe", (questionably) derived by many Enlightenment figures from Newton's Principia. For historical reasons its philosophical expression came to be associated with Spinoza, and so the animation and edification of "living Nature" came hand in hand with its deification, pantheism, derived (also questionably) from Spinoza.

For Romantic poets' the infatuation with pantheism"Spinoza's" hylozoism did not start with Blake and Wordsworth however, nor did it start in England. It erupted in Germany during the Pantheismus-Streit (Pantheism Controversy) after Jacobi published a short bookpamphlet in 1785 accusing Lessing of Spinozism and atheism. The leading romantic poets that took Lessing's side were Goethe and Herder, but Spinoza's philosophy is associated with romantic pantheismpanpsychism only loosely. Zammito gives a panoramic view of the historical and philosophical context in The Genesis of Kant's Critique of Judgment:

Kant's "vehemence" was not very effective, he accused Spinoza's God/Nature of incoherence just a few chapters after describing a very similar "intellectus archetypus" as logically conceivable. His idealist successors, Fichte and especially Schelling, adopted some of that exalted holismarchetypal insight into the animated Nature to solve the "conundrum of modern epistemology", which was laid bare by Kant's critique of metaphysics. OnFor the subsequent developments, including on English romantic poetry, perhaps the most comprehensive source is  Abrams's Natural Supernaturalism: Tradition and Revolution in Romantic Literature. Here is from Hirsch's review:

Later German romantics, like Hölderlin and Novalis, moved from "Spinozism" to a more up to date version of the "unity of nature", idealism in the style of Schelling. Pantheism isPanpsychism and pantheism are routinely read into Blake's and Wordsworth's poetry by popularizers, see e.g. Albuquerque, but again one would have to apply the label loosely, in the sense of some self-driving living force, and perhaps purpose, being present in nature, irreducible to mechanistic causation. 

Schlieper claims that his "study shows Blake as a lucid and consistent thinker whose philosophy is a subjective idealism, not unlike Berkeley's, directed against British empiricism", see his dissertation William Blake, Philosopher. There is a good argument that the hylozoist/pantheist reading even of Spinoza himself is a misreading ("as to the view of certain people that I identify god with nature (taken as a kind of mass or corporeal matter), they are quite mistaken", Spinoza wrote for himself), and that he is better interpreted as a (notional) panentheist. In some respects Spinoza's position is more akin to Shankara's Advaita, see Dorter's Thought and Expression in Spinoza and Shankara. Dombrowski argues in Wordsworth's Panentheism that the same applies to Wordsworth:

Thus, in many German and English romantics "panpsychism" is a philosophical oversimplification, although it does reflect some key aspects of their artistic mindset.

Romantic poets' infatuation with pantheism did not start with Blake and Wordsworth, nor did it start in England. It erupted in Germany during the Pantheismus-Streit (Pantheism Controversy) after Jacobi published a short book in 1785 accusing Lessing of Spinozism and atheism. The leading romantic poets that took Lessing's side were Goethe and Herder, but Spinoza's philosophy is associated with romantic pantheism only loosely. Zammito gives a panoramic view of the historical and philosophical context in The Genesis of Kant's Critique of Judgment:

Kant's "vehemence" was not very effective, he accused Spinoza's God/Nature of incoherence just a few chapters after describing a very similar "intellectus archetypus" as logically conceivable. His idealist successors, Fichte and especially Schelling, adopted some of that exalted holism to solve the "conundrum of modern epistemology". On the subsequent developments, including English romantic poetry, perhaps the most comprehensive source is  Abrams's Natural Supernaturalism: Tradition and Revolution in Romantic Literature. Here is from Hirsch's review:

Later German romantics, like Hölderlin and Novalis, moved from "Spinozism" to a more up to date version of the "unity of nature", idealism in the style of Schelling. Pantheism is routinely read into Blake's and Wordsworth's poetry by popularizers, see e.g. Albuquerque, but again one would have to apply the label loosely. Schlieper claims that his "study shows Blake as a lucid and consistent thinker whose philosophy is a subjective idealism, not unlike Berkeley's, directed against British empiricism", see his dissertation William Blake, Philosopher. There is a good argument that the hylozoist/pantheist reading even of Spinoza himself is a misreading ("as to the view of certain people that I identify god with nature (taken as a kind of mass or corporeal matter), they are quite mistaken", Spinoza wrote for himself), and that he is better interpreted as a (notional) panentheist. In some respects Spinoza's position is more akin to Shankara's Advaita, see Dorter's Thought and Expression in Spinoza and Shankara. Dombrowski argues in Wordsworth's Panentheism that the same applies to Wordsworth:

Panpsychism, vitalism, or hylozoism (from Greek hyle, "matter", and zoion, "animal"), the label most commonly used at the time, and the Romantic movement itself, were a reaction against the mechanistic materialism, the "clockwork universe", (questionably) derived by many Enlightenment figures from Newton's Principia. For historical reasons its philosophical expression came to be associated with Spinoza, and so the animation and edification of "living Nature" came hand in hand with its deification, pantheism, derived (also questionably) from Spinoza.

For Romantic poets' the infatuation with "Spinoza's" hylozoism did not start with Blake and Wordsworth however, nor did it start in England. It erupted in Germany during the Pantheismus-Streit (Pantheism Controversy) after Jacobi published a short pamphlet in 1785 accusing Lessing of Spinozism and atheism. The leading romantic poets that took Lessing's side were Goethe and Herder, but Spinoza's philosophy is associated with romantic panpsychism only loosely. Zammito gives a panoramic view of the historical and philosophical context in The Genesis of Kant's Critique of Judgment:

Kant's "vehemence" was not very effective, he accused Spinoza's God/Nature of incoherence just a few chapters after describing a very similar "intellectus archetypus" as logically conceivable. His idealist successors, Fichte and especially Schelling, adopted some of that archetypal insight into the animated Nature to solve the "conundrum of modern epistemology", which was laid bare by Kant's critique of metaphysics. For the subsequent developments, including on English romantic poetry, perhaps the most comprehensive source is Abrams's Natural Supernaturalism: Tradition and Revolution in Romantic Literature. Here is from Hirsch's review:

Later German romantics, like Hölderlin and Novalis, moved from "Spinozism" to a more up to date version of the "unity of nature", idealism in the style of Schelling. Panpsychism and pantheism are routinely read into Blake's and Wordsworth's poetry by popularizers, see e.g. Albuquerque, but again one would have to apply the label loosely, in the sense of some self-driving living force, and perhaps purpose, being present in nature, irreducible to mechanistic causation. 

Schlieper claims that his "study shows Blake as a lucid and consistent thinker whose philosophy is a subjective idealism, not unlike Berkeley's, directed against British empiricism", see his dissertation William Blake, Philosopher. There is a good argument that the hylozoist/pantheist reading even of Spinoza himself is a misreading ("as to the view of certain people that I identify god with nature (taken as a kind of mass or corporeal matter), they are quite mistaken", Spinoza wrote for himself), and that he is better interpreted as a (notional) panentheist. In some respects Spinoza's position is more akin to Shankara's Advaita, see Dorter's Thought and Expression in Spinoza and Shankara. Dombrowski argues in Wordsworth's Panentheism that the same applies to Wordsworth:

Thus, in many German and English romantics "panpsychism" is a philosophical oversimplification, although it does reflect some key aspects of their artistic mindset.

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