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Plessner develops a philosophy that questions the dualism as being a fundamental one. Dualism is just a way to look at reality, a mutually exclusive focus. And he offers an alternative: That all that there is (for the human) is that which he expresses itself to him and that to which he can stand in relation with (through structural characteristics of being). In other words: Real is that to which we can(or must) behave, the single ontological reality is the process of living as both body and mind in relation to a world itself.

Plessner develops a philosophy that questions the dualism as being a fundamental one. Dualism is just a way to look at reality, a mutually exclusive focus. And he offers an alternative: That all that there is (for the human) is that which he expresses itself to him and that to which he can stand in relation with (through structural characteristics of being). In other words: Real is that to which we can(or must) behave, reality is the process of living as both body and mind in relation to a world itself.

Plessner develops a philosophy that questions the dualism as being a fundamental one. Dualism is just a way to look at reality, a mutually exclusive focus. And he offers an alternative: That all that there is (for the human) is that which expresses itself to him and that to which he can stand in relation with (through structural characteristics of being). In other words: Real is that to which we can(or must) behave, the single ontological reality is the process of living as both body and mind in relation to a world itself.

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His criticism of empirical (natural) sciences is that they isare stuck in an inner tension: Firstly, itevery scientific description has to start from the phenomenal reality of appearances (even if theythe appearances are mediated through experimental instruments etc.). Then, goesnatural sciences go on to describe its physical conditions of the possibility of occurrence, and statesstate that this description is a description of "objective reality" of the outer world. Secondly, the very dichotomy between inner and outer world, between subject and object, relies on the Cartesian dualism and implies the impossibility of ever getting hold of objective reality.

A classic example used by Plessner is the scientific description of the qualitative sensation of a colour as merely being the neuronal signals in our brain induced by electromagnetic radiation of a certain wavelength hitting our retinal cones (29–30): the immanent reality of a quality is reduced to the “objective” physical conditions of its occurrence, while the subjective conditions that also are conditions of the occurrence of the very same phenomenon of “redness” would lead to mere illusions. Science claims to fully understand the reality of the phenomenon while at the same time never being able to really explain the qualitative nature of the phenomenon (leading to epiphenomenalism - a form of shrugging your shoulders). This “one-sidedness” (75,83,108–9,111–12,186,330) of the consideration of the conditions of the possibility of the occurrence of a phenomenon – which can also fall into the other extreme of considering only the subjective conditions (i.e. philosophically idealism and as a science many branches of psychology, sociology, etc. - cultural sciences) – is what. This kind of one-sidedness, the reduction of the phenomenon to one of its aspects, is described as constituting a "plane of experience".

His criticism of empirical sciences is that they is stuck in an inner tension: Firstly, it has to start from the phenomenal reality of appearances (even if they are mediated through experimental instruments etc.), goes on to describe its physical conditions of the possibility of occurrence, and states that this description is a description of "objective reality" of the outer world. Secondly, the very dichotomy between inner and outer world, between subject and object, relies on the Cartesian dualism and implies the impossibility of ever getting hold of objective reality.

A classic example used by Plessner is the scientific description of the qualitative sensation of a colour as merely being the neuronal signals in our brain induced by electromagnetic radiation of a certain wavelength hitting our retinal cones (29–30): the immanent reality of a quality is reduced to the “objective” physical conditions of its occurrence, while the subjective conditions that also are conditions of the occurrence of the very same phenomenon of “redness” would lead to mere illusions. Science claims to fully understand the reality of the phenomenon while at the same time never being able to really explain the qualitative nature of the phenomenon (leading to epiphenomenalism - a form of shrugging your shoulders). This “one-sidedness” (75,83,108–9,111–12,186,330) of the consideration of the conditions of the possibility of the occurrence of a phenomenon – which can also fall into the other extreme of considering only the subjective conditions (i.e. idealism) – is what is described as constituting a "plane of experience".

His criticism of empirical (natural) sciences is that they are stuck in an inner tension: Firstly, every scientific description has to start from the phenomenal reality of appearances (even if the appearances are mediated through experimental instruments etc.). Then, natural sciences go on to describe physical conditions of the possibility of occurrence, and state that this description is a description of "objective reality" of the outer world. Secondly, the very dichotomy between inner and outer world, between subject and object, relies on the Cartesian dualism and implies the impossibility of ever getting hold of objective reality.

A classic example used by Plessner is the scientific description of the qualitative sensation of a colour as merely being the neuronal signals in our brain induced by electromagnetic radiation of a certain wavelength hitting our retinal cones (29–30): the immanent reality of a quality is reduced to the “objective” physical conditions of its occurrence, while the subjective conditions that also are conditions of the occurrence of the very same phenomenon of “redness” would lead to mere illusions. Science claims to fully understand the reality of the phenomenon while at the same time never being able to really explain the qualitative nature of the phenomenon (leading to epiphenomenalism - a form of shrugging your shoulders). This “one-sidedness” (75,83,108–9,111–12,186,330) of the consideration of the conditions of the possibility of the occurrence of a phenomenon – which can also fall into the other extreme of considering only the subjective conditions (i.e. philosophically idealism and as a science many branches of psychology, sociology, etc. - cultural sciences). This kind of one-sidedness, the reduction of the phenomenon to one of its aspects, is described as constituting a "plane of experience".

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[How] to comprehend the human as he lives and understands himself, as a sensuous-ethical [sensuous = physical; ethical = cultural] being in one [unitary] experiential position, appropriate to human existence and encompassing “nature” and “spirit” [?] (p. 25)

[W]hat are the layers of existence [Dasein] with which the human shares existence because of the way his being is? How does he, as a living unit, have to experience himself and the world? (p. 37)

HowClarification: How does this answer the question?

[How] to comprehend the human as he lives and understands himself, as a sensuous-ethical being in one [unitary] experiential position, appropriate to human existence and encompassing “nature” and “spirit” [?] (p. 25)

[W]hat are the layers of existence [Dasein] with which the human shares existence because of the way his being is? How does he, as a living unit, have to experience himself and the world? (p. 37)

How does this answer the question?

[How] to comprehend the human as he lives and understands himself, as a sensuous-ethical [sensuous = physical; ethical = cultural] being in one [unitary] experiential position, appropriate to human existence and encompassing “nature” and “spirit” [?] (p. 25)

[W]hat are the layers of existence [Dasein] with which the human shares existence because of the way his being is? How does he, as a living unit, have to experience himself and the world? (p. 37)

Clarification: How does this answer the question?

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