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5 views

Good explanation of the meaning behind what constitutes a “personal choice”?

Most people define and understand situations of "personal choice" as personal opinion, quality, or things that belong or relates exclusively to the person making the choice (i.e., does not ...
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0answers
32 views

Any concrete, real life example of Peirce's Law?

What would be a real life, concrete example of Peirce's Law? ((p → q) → p) → p There is a Wikipedia article on it, if you are unfamiliar with it: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peirce's_law There ...
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0answers
7 views

Dialectics and Machiavelli

What is the relation between Marxist dialectics and Machiavelli's philosophy? I have read Lefort, and he seems good, but I was unsure if he was an academic playing games.
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0answers
13 views

If the “Problem of Qualia” is valid, then how can we communicate?

I was reading about qualia and how there's apparently the problem of qualia because a unique experience is constrained to one subject (?). But I don't see how this is meaningful in any way since ...
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0answers
16 views

How warm countries result in precocious maturity and decay? [closed]

In the book The Complete Story of Civilization by Will Durant , page 1, he wrote that “The heat of the tropics, and the innumerable parasites that infest them, are hostile to civilization; lethargy ...
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1answer
19 views

argument analysis on valid/sound in reference to opinions

Can an argument be valid and sound if some of its premises are opinion(s)? I'm doing a first year course in philosophy and I am having trouble understanding if opinions as premises can make a valid ...
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1answer
16 views

Show S5 contains S4; Garson 2.4

<> = possible [ ]=necessary Hey all, I am trying to show the following axiom is provable in S5: [ ]A -> [ ] [ ]A = (4) The hint says to prove: [ ]A -> [ ] <> [ ]A first, which ...
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0answers
13 views

how do Sense and Denotation relate to translation?

i would like to know how are Sense and Denotation relate to translation and the role that they have in translation
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1answer
40 views

Could nature have no “physical laws” at all?

Why scientists assumes that nature have laws? Is it possible to have no laws at all? I mean that how nature behaves may vary with space and time but this doesn't mean it is unpredictable at all. It ...
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0answers
11 views

contradictio in adjecto

Arthur schopenhauer comments on Spinoza's God accordingly: For the word God, honestly used, means a cause such as this of the world, with the addition of personality. An impersonal God is, on the ...
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0answers
13 views

Does modus tollens capture the essence of “necessary condition”?

Does modus tollens capture the essence of "necessary condition"? (1) P → Q, ¬Q, … so ¬P. (2) So Q is a necessary condition of P. Is (1) the inner structure of (2)? Are any of these true: The ...
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0answers
50 views

Is the Law of Identity a Logical Absolute? Can it be doubted, violated, or disproven (i.e., proven false)?

**The First Law of Thought: The Law of Identity** Something is what it is [L_1], and it is not what it is not [LI_2]: -| yields the logical conjunction: [LI_1 & LI_2], & = “and”; Therefore, ...
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1answer
36 views

How can someone infer something does not exist?

First, I came across the Penrose triangle and then a variety of impossible objects. I understand that an object might not exist in a specific domain. For example, Penrose triangle does not exist in 3 ...
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0answers
24 views

Trying to find a quote on the trappings of democracy surviving even as democracy dies [closed]

I don't remember the source or the exact wording, but I remember some years ago reading a quote that Americans will continue to wave the flag, we will continue to have elections, and play the national ...
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1answer
66 views

Are these two propositions equivalent?

Are the propositions "Everything happens for a reason", and "Nothing happens without a reason" logically equivalent?
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0answers
46 views

Lucretius, III: exploring a passage in 'On the Nature of Things' [closed]

What do you make of this? I want to understand this passage! Furthermore, suppose that nature suddenly burst into speech, and personally addressed the following rebuke to one of us, "What ...
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0answers
61 views

What is the solution of the Russel class paradox [closed]

It can be these options Everything has no properties or the same properties (any set has itself as a property ,something that has to be an empty set and is an empty set and does not exis) The property ...
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0answers
25 views

Nietzsche's stance on how language makes us live in a world of “things” and “events”

In A Teacher's Introduction to Postmodernism by R. Linn, it says: Whereas Kant argued that the concept of a "thing", as opposed to en "event", was produced in consciousness as a ...
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0answers
78 views

Help with an excerpt from Hume, A Treatise on Human Nature

“To begin with resemblance; suppose we could see clearly into the breast of another, and observe that succession of perceptions, which constitutes his mind or thinking principle, and suppose that he ...
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1answer
34 views

Explanation of a quote from Spinoza

Notandum, dari necessario unius cujusque rei existentis certam aliquam CAUSAM, propter quam existit. Et notandum, hanc causam, propter quart aliqua res existit, vel debere contineri in ipsa natura et ...
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7answers
575 views

Consciousness in Simulation theory & AI, why do some believe that it is even possible?

There are many famous philosophers that assume that "consciousness can be create by calculations in a computer". For example: Nick Bostrom with the simulation theory [I greatly respect and ...
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0answers
24 views

Varieties of Evidentialism (Prudential, Moral, Epistemic)

re section 5 of this SEP https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-belief/#VarEvi I understand each has different aims, but I dont see how does the meaning of evidence and Evidentialism change in each ...
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4answers
102 views

Can a true sentence be a lie?

My question is simple - can a true statement be a lie - that is, can the pragmatics of use of a true sentence (context, intension, effects, etc) make a true statement into a lie? Intuitively it seems ...
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0answers
31 views

What happens when you blame someone [closed]

When you blame someone, are you asserting an opinion or a fact? For example, Let's begin with this: Person A and Person B get in a car accident. Person A was on his phone, while Person B was abiding ...
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2answers
119 views

Can biological evolution comsummate?

Can biological evolution comsummate? In biological evolution, living organisms continues to change. However, is there a point wherein evolution stops due to an organism not needing change anymore? ...
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0answers
24 views

What is correlationism?

I've read definitions but it's not clear to me. Is it correlationist to say that every state of affairs we imagine must include someone imagining it? Would any philosophers argue for that, and if not ...
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0answers
33 views

Opinion or Fact? [closed]

Let's say two people had an argument, where Person A caught Person B doing something against the rules. Person A talks to Person B on why he shouldn't do that thing he was doing bad. Person B finds ...
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0answers
35 views

What comes before propositional logic? [closed]

Essentially, what tools does a human require to figure out or build propositional logic?
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1answer
23 views

Fitch proof help no premise [closed]

There is no premise just a conclusion of ¬C on fitch. I am very stuck on this problem.
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0answers
49 views

Why does pain still exist when we have a surplus of food

In the stone age, people hunted for wildlife. Trying to survive was painful for them as they faced harsh weathers, hunger, and thirst. To make life easier, they created a stable food supply and built ...
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2answers
92 views

Can you create two things that are exactly the same?

Is it possible to create two objects that are the same on the molecular level? By two objects, I mean two different objects that have the same label. For example, can you create two different breads ...
3
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1answer
80 views

Can animals follow logical rules of inference?

I've been trying to recall a thought experiment, which I very vaguely remember to have come across either in Davidson or Dennett, that considers the following scenario: A hound is chasing its quarry ...
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0answers
34 views

Can’t we assume that the Boltzmann Brain scenario can be cognitively stable?

In the Boltzmann Brain scenario, we are all brains produced by random fluctuations within a high entropy universe. The argument which I had accepted before was that our very reasoning can not be ...
2
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2answers
42 views

Logical fallacy for dismissing criticism due to past mistakes

Often it is claimed that a country or group can't judge others due to similar mistakes made in the past by the group which is criticizing. For example, I have seen people claiming that the UK can't ...
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0answers
43 views

Can this claim be considered an opinion? [closed]

Let's say you and your friend are sharing two drinks - Drink A and Drink B. You: "Drink A is sweeter than Drink B." Is this an opinion? Claim? Or both? "Sweetness" is not really ...
-1
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3answers
56 views

Can statements about the future be facts?

Let's set some context: Person A and Person B have a group project. They are both assigned a slide (Slide A for Person A and Slide B for Person B) Person A has finished his slide, yet Person B hasn't. ...
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3answers
57 views

What's wrong with this syllogism?

No one held for murder is given bail Smith isn't held for murder Hence Smith is given bail no M is B s is not M s is B What's wrong with the conclusion?
-2
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0answers
23 views

Prove the following K schema (Exercise from Garson)

I want to prove <> (P v Q) => <> P v <> Q It was a biconditional, but I have proved the other one. Thanks for the answer. Please use Garson's method. Thanks. I am stuck on this, ...
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0answers
30 views

Name of logical fallacy that compares “our noble hero” to their “ridiculous clown” [closed]

On social media we often see inflammatory partisan image memes, that compare conservative vs liberal, or past generations vs today's. (Or anything really.) For example: The youth from past ...
-2
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1answer
75 views

A thought experiment with a new civilization [closed]

I was wondering what would happen if let’s say we start a new civilization with 10 kids, who have not been exposed to the idea of God ever and they are given scientific reasoning and scientific ...
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2answers
179 views

Why all the dismissal for Circular Reasoning? [duplicate]

In my studies of Mathematics and (mostly) Theoretical Computer Science I've encountered what is known as Munchhausen's Trilemma which purports to demonstrate nothing can be actually be proved because ...
2
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2answers
120 views

What is free will free of?

Free will can be seen as freedom "to" and freedom "from". What is it freedom from? Is free will free of logic? Is free will free of cause and effect? What is free will free from?
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0answers
29 views

Modal Logic Question: Proving a theorem in K [closed]

Garson's Modal Logic for Philosophers Exercise 1.8: [ ](P & Q) <=> [ ]P & [ ]Q I am stuck on this question, please help! Please use the method Garson uses. Thanks.
4
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1answer
88 views

How have deaf (or blind) people who hear (or see) for the first time changed philosophers' understanding of qualia?

Here's how the physicist David Deutsch (2011) describes qualia: Consider the following thought experiment. You are a biochemist with the misfortune to have been born with a genetic defect that ...
1
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1answer
45 views

Nietzsche said: Everyone knows at present that the ability to endure contradiction is a good indication of culture

Nietzsche said: Everyone knows at present that the ability to endure contradiction is a good indication of culture. What does that mean, and what was he most likely trying to say, stating that?
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2answers
80 views

(In)formal languages and meaning of words

I vaguely remember having heard that one can formally prove that no amount of (successful) communication between two people ensures that the assigned meaning of their words converges. I think it had ...
2
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0answers
74 views

Why does cause exist?

We intuitively believe that everything must have a cause. If that is true, does it mean that causation itelf must have a cause? To be clear, I do NOT mean "does the cause of a cause have a cause?&...
3
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3answers
141 views

How to make sense of philosophical text that might seem like “nonsense” but isn't?

I am reading the work of Jean Baudrillard. Some of his ideas "feels" right: they make sense to me in a weird way, but I can't get deeper because I can't understand most of what I read. Take ...
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0answers
67 views

Factual Statements? What determines it?

Let's say someone is growing their hair. Someone asks: "Why are you growing your hair? Any specific reason?" He returns: "Yes, I am growing it into an afro." Let's pretend that ...
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2answers
28 views

How can this shorten ( ~p v r ) $\and$ (~q v r) to ((~p $\and$ ~q) v r)?

I am just confused how this be possible, what rule is been used?

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