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To obtain knowledge must we acquire specific other knowledge first?

It would seem obvious we must acquire some knowledge before other knowledge. I want to emphasize specific prior knowledge though. I don’t want to just say to get to Paris you just travel through an ...
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3 answers
73 views

What are the philosophical justifications for the creation of rights?

Just like the title states, I am referring only to philosophical justifications, not legal, historical, or religious justifications. To me, it seems that the use of rights, specifically human rights, ...
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2 votes
0 answers
69 views

The necessity of shine in Hegel's Logic

In the Doctrine of Essence Hegel begins with shine [schein] as "all that remains of the sphere of being" (WL, p.342). He further qualifies it as a "nothingness or a lack of essence......
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1 vote
3 answers
67 views

Is there evidence for claims that specific actions are moral due to intrinsic, objective features of those actions?

The phrase moral realism will be used to cover the idea that actions can be right or wrong, permitted or forbidden, etc. due to qualities that are internal to the objective nature of those actions. ...
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2 votes
3 answers
133 views

Is the Kalam Cosmological Argument coherent?

So, to me, the Kalam seems either incoherent or trivial. It's taken seriously by people who actually study philosophy, so I assume I must be missing something. My understanding of the argument is ...
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3 votes
0 answers
167 views

What does Hegel mean by “return to itself”?

I am reading a secondary source that has a section dedicated to Hegel. It says “For Hegel, the whole of history is such a dialectical process—one that is driven by Geist returning to itself, having “...
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1 answer
53 views

What is Anti-humanism?

I tried to do my own research on it but I'm not very much cleared about it. Please explain it to me in simple language. this term is being used by Post-structuralism and postmodernists.
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  • 19
-4 votes
1 answer
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Hi! I'm 99% sure my formal argument is valid, but can you check? [closed]

I wrote this argument, and while i'm sure it is valid, it has been awhile since I've done basic logic.Thanks!
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4 votes
1 answer
118 views

References for EPR and local realism

I am learning about EPR and local realism in physics. However, in that context, nobody talks about the philosophical implications and deeper meaning of local realism, objective reality, hidden ...
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1 vote
1 answer
40 views

Help with Nietzsche quote source

I recall reading that Nietzsche thought that Democritus was the first Greek to eliminate any trace of superstition from his thinking. I cannot find a source for this though, and would appreciate some ...
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  • 113
1 vote
2 answers
74 views

How labour is more concrete that it became essence of humanity according to Marx?

Marx considered labour as essence of humans that makes us different to other animals. But how is it more concrete than other things ? Isn't it labour situational, I mean something that forcefully to ...
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  • 19
-1 votes
3 answers
111 views

Proving the Conclusion

Derivations Prove that the following arguments are valid.ANSWSER IS POSTED (Q → ¬P), (¬Q → ¬P) ⊢ ¬P notes: ⊢ stands for the conclusion. so basically, I am trying to prove how -P is a true/proper ...
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4 votes
6 answers
161 views

Can emotions be logical? And can logic and emotion co-exist?

Logic and emotion tend to be considered as polar opposites. When someone is empathetic or generally emotional, they are not claimed to be logical. The parts of the brain responsible for logic and ...
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Formal definition of "natural" and "naturalness" for the ethics and moral philosophy of "natural law"?

Every object is the combinatorial combination of atoms (or quarks/gluons/leptons if we dive deeper to the elements). Is there formal definition which combinations of atoms are "natural" and ...
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  • 179
-1 votes
1 answer
48 views

What should a person do?

Edit 1: As pointed out in the comments, the question implies the existence of a purpose and agency so I would like to re-phrase the question to match what I'm after: What should a person do? (What is ...
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-1 votes
1 answer
72 views

Gödel's loophole

Gödel's loophole is an unidentified, alleged contradiction in the US Constitution, one that purportedly allows for America to transform into a tyranny on an internal "legal" basis. Since ...
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0 answers
51 views

Is this question answerable? [closed]

Is it possible to answer this question? Does it have a correct answer?
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6 votes
8 answers
2k views

We know reality exists but can we prove what is real? [closed]

The common Athiest argument is "I base my life on facts and truth." My stance is that no one wholly bases their life on facts and truths, because, at some point, facts and truths have a ...
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0 answers
22 views

An argument against Hume's idea of necessary connection

In section 7 of the Enquiry Hume talks about necessary connection being an ambiguous metaphysical concept since even though we see events happening one after another (ex. hitting a billiard ball ...
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1 vote
1 answer
96 views

When it may be said that a fetus is a living creature and thus has rights that may collide with his mother's rights?

I used to believe that every pregnant woman should have a right to undergo an abortion - but when contemplated over it I realized that I also think of situations where the fetus is no older than a few ...
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1 vote
1 answer
60 views

Question about fundamental philosophical standpoints

I just started learning Philosophy. One of my colleagues said that there are 4 fundamental philosophical standpoints: Atheism Agnosticism Deism Theism But when I tried to read/search about the ...
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0 answers
31 views

Is Egoism of Max Stirner idealization of Free consciousness?

In more simple language when Stirner talks about having no fix ideas or not treating ideas as sacred somehow makes it (Egoism of Stirner) having a fix idea itself ? Is creative nothing an idea or ...
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  • 19
8 votes
3 answers
855 views

Is there such a thing as N-valued logic?

Is there such a thing as N-valued logic, N being above 5 since there exist 3-valued and 4-valued logic. I am asking, because after true, false and neither, the additional truth value basically don't ...
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0 votes
1 answer
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If modal operators can be reduced to functions on conditional/disjunctive connective operators, what is the effect on the iterated-modality question?

Assumptions. The overall claim is that, "X is possible," when X is some proposition, can be translated into, "If X is the object of a true conditional or disjunction, then the ...
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-1 votes
0 answers
60 views

Moral thought scenario

Imagine an action is considered wrong. You do this action to somebody without them knowing and without them remembering or being hurt by it. Would the action committed still be considered morally ...
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0 answers
13 views

Continental Philosophy and Equality

Continental Philosophers treated Equality? Philosophers like Focault, Sartre, Heidegger, etc. Can you mention some continental philosophers and books or papers who treated Equality?
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0 answers
33 views

Conduct of debate

Which philosophers concerned themselves with the conduct of philosophical debate? Addressing themes such as: Compete to show how fair and reasonable you are, not to ram through your point of view no ...
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0 votes
1 answer
123 views

Necessity of arithmetic truths into Godel sentences

My layman but hopeful to understand self is slowly trying to understand some of Godel and the philosophical implications of his work (uh oh). Currently my understanding is that on some level: Godel ...
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  • 1,324
1 vote
3 answers
100 views

Does time have a changing speed?

Based on my own personal experiences and responses from other people I have questioned time is more than numbers. Correct me if I’m wrong, but it seems to me that it is a fact that pleasure speeds up ...
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-1 votes
0 answers
29 views

Belief in everything [closed]

Can someone claim the following without resorting to a conundrum: "I believe in everything, also believe in not believing in any thing." Seems like believing in everything leads you into not ...
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0 votes
0 answers
33 views

The working of Laws of logic on informal reasoning

As a mathematics learner, I can connect the laws of logic with the deductive type (formal logic) of reasoning, but I cannot sink those fundamental laws with the informal sense; however, induction and ...
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0 answers
178 views

Has Jordan Peterson much to say about analytic philosophy or related schools of philosophy?

Just as a curiosity, has Jordan Peterson much to say about analytic philosophy or about any philosopher whom, let's say, a philosophy professor at Oxford is likely to take seriously? (I went to Oxford....
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-1 votes
1 answer
33 views

If "good" = "reasonable", is it impossible to answer "Why ought I do bad?"

The problem: The problem is the difficulty in answering "Why ought I do good?" Presupposition for the argument: "Why ought I do good?" is equivalent to "Why ought I be ...
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0 votes
1 answer
39 views

do you know if telepathy exists? [closed]

involuntary telepathy for bad things like robbing not that i wanna rob or something its like a mechanism of protection of the soul its something inmaterial non physical like sound invisible not for ...
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0 answers
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Construct describing an inherent sense of right/wrong?

In Christian and especially Protestant philosophy there seems to be an implied notion that humans possess some ability to "sense" moral right and wrong. When one performs or contemplates an ...
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0 votes
3 answers
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What's the difference between statements of wants and statements of should?

I am trying to find out what the relationship is between statements that involve the speakers wants, and statements that involve what the speaker thinks as should. Here is my example: Speaker: "...
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0 votes
3 answers
90 views

How to distinguish the species of „real“ persons from the species of simulated persons?

Today I learned from an academic talk given by Prof. Gilles Brassard (Montreal): In the context of artificial intelligence one discusses not only civilizations (level 1) which are simulated by ...
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2 votes
2 answers
63 views

What could be some general unifying principles to guide what a philosophical reflection/enquiry might look like?

The notions of logical consistency, pertinence and possibly relevance seem important for a philosophical inquiry on some matter to be fruitful and interesting. Other notions once considered important, ...
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-1 votes
0 answers
107 views

What causes a culture to become a guilt-based or shame-based? [closed]

Looking for theories as to what historical factors form a guilt or shame based culture. Is it rooted in geography? Historical events? Certain aspects of religion? For instance, I have wondered if the ...
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0 votes
0 answers
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When a person deserves US$120,000 as a salary, is using some technique to pay him $100,000 ethical?

I wonder what "ethical" or "moral" definition or meaning can be used here. Sometimes, we know that for a new graduate or senior software engineer, the market rate should be about $...
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0 votes
0 answers
82 views

Who was more insightful as a philosopher Evola or Gramsci? [closed]

During the early part of the 20th century italy had a bunch of rather prominent philosophers. Many of these philosophers like Gramsci,Evola and Gentile(I am not sure if Gramsci and Evola are in the ...
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16 votes
4 answers
4k views

How could one distinguish crankery from serious work?

Suppose I read a work, and I don't understand it or see its meaning, then it could be that either the information itself is inconsistent/non-sensical or I don't understand it personally. How do I know ...
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2 votes
0 answers
56 views

Spinoza: what would be a concrete example of a thing that "is in" another thing

Spinoza talks about substance and its modifications. Since God is the only substance, it follows that everything else that exists is modifications of modifications of modifications ... etc. As I ...
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2 votes
5 answers
315 views

Can the laws of physics rule out disembodied minds?

In this article, philosopher Evan Fales argues that the laws of physics establish that disembodied minds (such as an immaterial God, for example) could not influence the physical world. Is it true? (...
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2 votes
0 answers
27 views

Spinoza: finding examples of a definite cause: where if no definite cause be granted, the effect cannot follow

When we typically think of cause and effect, we start with an event such as a death of a person and we ask what was the cause. For example, we might say that the cause of death was a heart attack. ...
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1 vote
0 answers
173 views

Recent developments in philosophy of history

We have all heard of Hegel's or Marx's ideas about what drives human history. Likewise, during the 19th century, other ideas on the same subject were formulated by authors such as Thomas Carlyle or ...
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  • 199
0 votes
1 answer
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Why is this a parallel to natural science?

This is from Husserl's Phenomenology which he wrote for the Encyclopedia Britannica: It is by no means clear from the very outset, however, how far the idea of a pure psychology -as a psychological ...
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1 vote
5 answers
176 views

Can hatred and retribution be justified and rationalized without free will?

Without free will, our behaviour would be no different from any other natural phenomenon, Sam Harris and other determinists claim: https://imgur.com/bIrWOJI “Compare the response to Hurricane Katrina,...
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1 vote
4 answers
193 views

"You never know until you try"?

Is it not possible to know our preferences for sure until we try? Do we have to try eating things to know whether or not we actually dislike the foods? Where does this saying stop? Do we have to try e....
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  • 1,118
2 votes
0 answers
103 views

Does God pay attention? That is, does it make sense to talk about him paying attention to something?

I'd like to know about different theological theories of what it might mean for God to pay attention to something. Thanks.
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