All Questions

0
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0answers
13 views

Fitch Proof - Arrow's logic of preferences

I've been stumped on this one question in particular for several days now and I'm hoping to get some help on where I'm going wrong. Given the following premises: ∀x∀y(StrongPref(x,y)→ ¬StrongPref(y,...
1
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0answers
9 views

Can the problem of criterion be extended?

The problem of criterion simply states two claims: I can only identify instances of knowledge provided I already know what the criteria for knowledge are I can only know what the criteria for ...
0
votes
1answer
26 views

Can anyone tell which one of these sentences are materially implies(implication) and logically implies(implication)?

these are the contexts: 1): If the number 0 has a certain property, and any natural number a has the property implies that a +1 also has the property, then every natural number has the ...
0
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0answers
22 views

How could Occam's razor possibly be used metaphysically?

Occam's razor, or the law of parsimony, states that the simplest explanation for any given data is most likely the correct one. Some have attempted to use Occam's razor in a metaphysical sense, to ...
1
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0answers
26 views

Why does one need to specify that the language is “well-orderable” for first order logic to be complete?

While reading Wikipedia I noticed the phrase "well-ordered language" in the following related to Gödel's completeness theorem: The completeness theorem then says that for any first-order theory T ...
-1
votes
1answer
68 views

Why no science of logic? [on hold]

Why no science of logic? By logic, I mean here deductive logic only. By science of logic, I mean a scientific investigation of logic as objective performance and manifest capability of human beings, ...
0
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0answers
44 views

Is there a term for the belief that if it's illegal, it's immoral?

Closely related to Is there a term for the belief that "if it's legal, it's moral"? Is there a term for the belief that if something is illegal, it's immoral? Is it simply a variant ...
1
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0answers
17 views

Maurice Blanchot's view on death?

Can someone please explain in simple terms what are the two types of death that Maurice Blanchot talked about? I came across an article about it on the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy but I don't ...
3
votes
0answers
48 views

Is all language meaningful?

Wittgenstein claimed that many philosophers misuse language and write nonsense. He later claimed that a private language, one that cannot in principle be understood, is impossible. Does that suggest ...
3
votes
1answer
48 views

Inconsistency in Tegmark's Mathematical Universe Hypothesis?

Physicist Max Tegmark is widely known for proposing that there is a multiverse where mathematical structures would exist as real and actual universes (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/...
1
vote
1answer
50 views

What are the types of non-deductive arguments?

I've been looking for it, but Google leads the search to multiple sort of pages that, although they talk about logic, explain the subject very differently from each other and they don't fix a list ...
1
vote
1answer
55 views

What are the conditions needed for a good argument in the field of informal logic?

I'm trying to get the difference between the concept of argument in the field of formal and informal logic and I'm still a little bit confused by how. Are true premises and non-false conclusions ...
0
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0answers
40 views

What can sociology and philosophy tell use about possible solutions to inequality/poverty?

I'm just trying to know if there is any scientific work that is politically neutral. Does poverty/inequality stems from cultural values or behavior? What experiment could be done to prevent ...
0
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0answers
41 views

Can a fact rely on an inference?

A syllogism with two facts as premises leads to a deduced fact: Premise 1: The sky is above my head (fact) Premise 2: I look up and I see blue (fact) Conclusion: The sky is blue (...
2
votes
1answer
100 views

Is the doomsday argument flawed?

Through the doomsday argument people try to calculate the number of humans that will ever live based only on the number of humans that have lived until now. To me this arguments seems very flawed, but ...
7
votes
2answers
2k views

What do they call philosophers in China?

The English word "philosopher" comes from the Greek, and literally means "lover of wisdom." But what is the literal translation of the analogous term in Chinese? (There's more to this question than ...
0
votes
3answers
105 views

Goal of liberation in yoga - Isn't it Boring?

I see that the goal of yoga is liberation from the karma and from the birth/death cycle. People say that it is the ultimate happiness forever. But wouldn't that be boring and monotonous if there is ...
2
votes
0answers
45 views

What tends to be the opinion on Heidegger's analysis of Greek philosophy?

What tends to be the opinion on Heidegger's analysis of Greek philosophy? What do experts in the (classical) history of philosophy make of his statements about ancient Greek philosophy?
-3
votes
1answer
48 views

Fitch Arrow Proofs [on hold]

Using the FITCH program and the FITCH derivation rules you should make a proof or derivation of C10 from P5 through P11. P5: ∀x∀y(StrongPref(x,y)→ ¬StrongPref(y,x)) P6: ∀x∀y∀z((StrongPref(x,y)∧...
0
votes
1answer
61 views

A question about material implication

I have a question about reading material implications. I know this read as "if p then q". like: if the moon is made of green cheese then the earth is round. but I can't read it in this sentence: ...
-1
votes
0answers
108 views

Do Stephen Wolfram and Gerard 't Hooft propose that literally every Cellular Automata is a universe?

Both Stephen Wolfram and nobel laureate Gerard 't Hooft think that the universe is a Cellular Automata. As far as I know, 't Hooft developped a series of frameworks to build different models of ...
1
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0answers
39 views

What is the difference between Adorno's 'fragmentation' and post-modern art's fragmentation?

the most authentic art is modernist art which reflects in its own fragmentation the fragmentation of society. What is the difference between Adorno's 'fragmentation' and post-modern art's ...
42
votes
6answers
12k views

Is there a term for the belief that “if it's legal, it's moral”?

Sometimes I hear arguments that seem to appeal to the fact that something is morally permissible because it is legally permitted. For example: Abortion is moral because it's legally permitted. ...
0
votes
2answers
121 views

Would this experiment establish whether wave function collapse is caused by consciousness?

I'm currently writing an article on the philosophy of physics. Part of the article, involves an experiment which would substantiate whether or not consciousness causes wave function collapse. Many ...
0
votes
2answers
93 views

Ethics and Mathematics

I am laying out a relationship between mathematics and ethics which I'm not sure is correct. In mathematics, we have axioms, statements we assume to be true. All the rest is logical deductions from ...
1
vote
1answer
39 views

Pythagorean metaphysics

I have developed an interest in studying Pythagoras, mainly his idea of Number as the Arche. It seems that neither him nor his school left any writings, and what survives of it comes through Aristotle'...
1
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0answers
52 views

Prerequisites to study aesthetics

So, I plan to begin to self study aesthetics, and was wondering whether a working knowledge of art history would be helpful for the same? If so, would Gardner's History of Art be sufficient? Also, on ...
-1
votes
0answers
39 views

Do societies always end in a patriachy or a matriachy? [on hold]

Most societies through time (and even in the animal kingdom) seem to either exist as a patriachy or a matriachy. i.e. the head of the family and village in a society is either seens as the elder man's ...
0
votes
1answer
35 views

Which solution is better for this predicate?

We have this predicate: Prime(x) ≡ x>1 ∧(∀y)(Divide(y,x) → (y=1 ∨ y=x)). Now I have to turn this into an English sentence. I've come up with three answers: x is a prime number if x is greater ...
1
vote
1answer
36 views

On the meaning of “θάνατός ἐστιν ὁκόσα ἐγερθέντες ὁρέομεν, ὁκόσα δὲ εὕδοντες ὕπνος”

Can someone give an explation on the meaning of "θάνατός ἐστιν ὁκόσα ἐγερθέντες ὁρέομεν, ὁκόσα δὲ εὕδοντες ὕπνος," a remaining fragment by Heraclitus. This website translated it as "All the things we ...
0
votes
2answers
64 views

What does it truly mean to have a will? Is it the same as being conscious?

Like if we talk about making choices, how can we know if it's made out of a habitual or automatic thought process or is independent and conscious? To most degree, the succession of thoughts in a ...
2
votes
2answers
73 views

Is it possible to enumerate metaphysical hypotheses?

Recently, I had an argument with someone who stated that the chance of experiencing nothing after death is extremely low. Their reasoning was that one can think of many more metaphysical realities in ...
0
votes
2answers
65 views

Value of human life in a simulation [on hold]

I’m interested to see whether people think the value of human life is worth less if our existence is the result of a simulation created by a “higher being.” Would living in base reality give more ...
2
votes
2answers
84 views

Can I use some software method to solve and derive logic proofs?

For example, suppose I have this problem: T (T ⊃ (B ∨ M)) (M ⊃ H) ~H I heard there's a programming language called Prolog which can verify whether the conclusion was true or false. I would like to ...
4
votes
1answer
210 views

What exactly is a first-order logic?

Can someone explain in simple terms what exactly is a first-order logic? From my amateur standpoint, I think that first-order logic is a some kind of a system of symbols and general logical rules and ...
2
votes
0answers
53 views

ELI5 - Abduction vs. Inference to Best Explanation (IBE)

How can you explain to a 5 y.o. how abductive reasoning differs from IBE? I don't understand even though I read SPE and these papers: Campos, Daniel G. On the Distinction between Peirce’s Abduction ...
2
votes
1answer
37 views

Instinct driven decisions [on hold]

I know there are many factors when making decisions such as emotion, logic and reason etc ... But my question is how significant is instinct or intuition driven decision making important when human ...
-1
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0answers
41 views

Science and ethics [on hold]

I know that science and ethics must work hand in hand to lead to a better pathway and future development on preserving the health of the scientific discipline. But what are the major issues which ...
1
vote
0answers
13 views

Ethically dilemmas, empathy,aggression [on hold]

Respected group members, I want ask you that if food scarcity in group and other group have limited resources for survive , my wife and children dying with starvation would I morally right to attack ...
0
votes
0answers
61 views

Utilitarianism revisited

I assume utilitarianism to be the doctrine that one should act to maximize the overall amount of some "happiness". Next to the fact that it's not quite clear what happiness is supposed to be and ...
1
vote
1answer
74 views

Does Gregory Chaitin propose a computable or an uncomputable ontology?

Gregory Chaitin is a mathematician who thinks that the universe is itself a computer, or similar... He has written papers closely related to the field of hypercomputation (For example, he invented ...
0
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0answers
33 views

Quantifying moral obligation

A follow-up, of sorts, on this question, in which I'd like to refine the notion of moral obligation. Consider some instances in which the notion might arise: Most people agree that a trolley operator ...
3
votes
0answers
95 views

Explanation vs. prediction in statistics and in the philosophy of science?

In the realm of statistics and machine learning, a lot of discussion has arisen recently around the difference between explaining and predicting: That the two are not the same, and that the difference ...
0
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0answers
29 views

Necessarily true/false and contingently true [closed]

Charles Lutwidge Dodgson is Lewis Carroll. Mary loves roses Which one of the sentences are necessarily true/false or contingently true, and why?
-1
votes
0answers
28 views

Is there a particular name/origin for the hypothesis “every x seconds, y event occurs” [closed]

I'm interested in whether there is a particular name for the above (part mesaurement, part prediction) formula/hypothesis (e.g. "every second, 4 babies are born","every minute, 330,000 google searches ...
1
vote
0answers
56 views

Intellectual History of Idea in A Geneaology of Morals Essay One

In Nietzsche's first essay in A Geneaology of Morals, he suggests that use of language in which subjects and verbs are distinguished may influence or at least correspond to conceptual distinctions in ...
1
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1answer
60 views

Do computer languages instantiate only predicate calculus?

All the computer languages I'm familiar with, be they imperative or declarative have the same core mechanics (arithmetic and logic).They have the same loops, conditionals etc. Whatever the language it ...
-2
votes
0answers
22 views

What the mind-body supervenience say about zombies and angels?

I cannot find a clear answer to what mind-body supervenience implies for non-material realisations of mind-properties and zombies. Let’s start with the zombies first, because it is often stated that ...
1
vote
1answer
60 views

Is it immoral to make a living off of a religious product that I made?

I'm a software developer, and I'm making an application that is, basically, a religious-inspired social media platform. It's free, not freemium, no consumables, nothing to pay for and users have ...
0
votes
0answers
71 views

Is it immoral to kill a philosophical zombie?

Is unplugging a robot from power the same as killing a person? As the commenters said this does not quite work because robots can be plugged back in. So let's replace robots with philosophical zombies,...

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