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Axiom 4 in epistemic logic

In epistemic logic, axiom 4 says that if I know p, then I know that I know p. What is the philosophical value of such an axiom?
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6 views

Beyond the 'self', what remains?

The self and its illusory nature has become a central focus in modern philosophy and has been a concern in Eastern philosophy historically. It may be said that the overall system governing all things ...
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33 views

Are sentience and consciousness logically equivalent?

Defining Consiusness as the mind part of the Mind–body problem, and Sentience as the capacity to experience feelings and sensations. If some individual have sentience then that individual have ...
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31 views

Would intelligence augmentation ultimately be bad for society?

If everyone had a genius IQ; there would be no such thing as smart anymore. Everyone would be “smart” and everyone would be quirky and eccentric. Birth rates may drop because highly intelligent people ...
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31 views

Infinite paradox

Is it paradoxical to think of infinite realities? I ask because if there are an infinite number of realities, wouldn't one of those realities be one in which no other realities exist, where there is ...
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1answer
50 views

Is ∞ the mathematical limit to any quantity?

For example, assuming someone figured out how to bypass all physical limitations, they would never be able to have more than infinity for any physical quantity. Even if you multiplied infinity by any ...
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1answer
39 views

What is the logical function of “and/or”?

I feel like it must mean the following: IF A, B, C and/or D (A, B, C, and D) and (A, B, C, or D) And I feel like it must not mean each of them individually and all of their combinations ((A), (B), (C),...
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3answers
108 views

Why do all equalities require two different things?

All equalities by definition require two different things. In 1+1=2, we presume that 1=1. However, although the two different 1's in 1=1 can either refer to a single object or two objects which we ...
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39 views

If someone consider Mathemetics & Logic as scientific disiplines, then also should consider analityc philosophy as a science?

Mathematics & Logic are disiplines that starting from a base set of axioms use deductive reasoning to conclude a stament as truth in the terms of that starting set of axioms. I argue that analityc ...
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13 views

Does empirical science need of the Past-Future hypothesis? [duplicate]

Scientism is the claim that science is the only source of knowledge. I was reading a article about scientism that argues that the PFT is needed to science. We can conclude, therefore, that the PFT is ...
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38 views

Is ∀x x = x a first-order validity or simply a logical truth (that is not a first-order validity?

I've been wondering about this. The textbook ''Language, Proof and Logic'' defines a first-order validity as the following: ''A sentence of FOL is a first-order validity if it is a logical truth when ...
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1answer
66 views

Is everything either alive or dead?

Can all things be classified as "alive" or "not alive?" For example, a cup is not alive, and a person can be alive, but a corpse is not alive. Is the status of life (or otherwise) ...
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27 views

How to show disjunction can be expressed as conditional

How to show that A V B can be constructed from A and B, using --> only(using conditional only)
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60 views

Are there any materials for the self-teaching of mathematical logic?

I want to learn something about mathematical logic just for further analytical philosophy studying,then how far should I learn mathematical logic? Are there any study materials with great mathematical ...
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2answers
41 views

If y is a direct result of x, and x is occurring, is y unavoidable?

Suppose knocking over a glass has the direct result of making fall. If you knock over a glass, will it fall, no matter what?
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3answers
91 views

Does the first Godel's incompleteness theorem forbids the existence of a Theory of Everything?

There is some position that the first Godel's incompleteness theorem does refute the possibility of finding a Theory of Everything. But the first Godel's incompleteness theorem stands: In every formal ...
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1answer
75 views

What are the categories of exact truth?

Most apparent facts are irremediably vague. For instance: "The chair in this room is red" may appear at first glance to be a statement that is either true or false. But in fact the meanings ...
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31 views

What is Plotinus' theory (of graduationism) that inspired Augustine about?

I want to know what Plotinus' gradualism is exactly about. I've heard in a lecture about Augustine being inspired by that theory, but can't seem to find anything about this. Is this gradualism just ...
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1answer
102 views

What is the philosophical basis of the relation among reasoning, formal logic, and Turing machines?

Turing's machine is a generalisation of the concept of 'computation'. 'Formal logic' seems to be some sort of form of 'computation'. How are reasoning, computation, and formal logic related? Are forms ...
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28 views

Are patterns prior to causes? Which philosophers are hesitant to believe there really are causes?

Most people and most philosophers seem to strongly believe in causation. I would like understand what philosophers have to say about how to go from believing in just patterns to causes too. Are the ...
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30 views

John Locke on socks and identity : reference request

I am aware that the question is somewhat vague, but I am trying to locate where in Locke's writings the argument about identity – exemplified with him repairing his socks again and again – is to be ...
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37 views

What is epistemic probability?

I have read that there are three types of probability: epistemic, credence and physical. It is not clear at all to me what are epistemic probabilities and how they differ with credence. Moreover, I am ...
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29 views

How do I derive a proof for: ~(Q-->P)-->R, ~R, ~P-->Q, Therefore, S in Kalish and Montague

Can anyone help me give a derivation for the argument above?
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34 views

Is this “by this time” in “On Liberty” a typo for “at this time”?

I have asked a question about On Liberty by J.S. Mill in English Language & Usage Stack Exchange here. However, I realized that it is not only the problem of grammar, but also that of political ...
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1answer
53 views

What sort of thought is nihilism?

The basic question for nihilism (as I understand) is "Why do I exist?" As they try to deny it. I was wondering that this is not a well defined concept. The argument is as follows, I exist ...
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1answer
64 views

Resources for Philosophy of Mathematics

Are there any suggestions to go through the foundations and logic of mathematics step by step. I understand that there are lot of resources to go through but I keep losing motivation as these are ...
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2answers
45 views

Does ◇◇A mean ~◻~~◻~A? If so is it by definition or it requires a proof?

In system K, ◇A is defined to mean ~◻~A. Therefore, it is very tempting to conclude ◇◇A means ~◻~~◻~A. But I am not certain whether this is valid conclusion to make, because in ◇◇A, the main operator ...
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41 views

Beyond Metaphilosophy

We understand what philosophy is and we understand what metaphilosophy is. Metaphilosophy is considered a field of inquiry within philosophy with a decently defined scope. Notice also metaphilosophy ...
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22 views

Ontic/Ontological as parallel to a posteriori/a priori?

Heidegger makes the distinction between the ontic (concerning beings themselves) and the ontological (the being of beings, being as such). Would it be wise to say that the ontic covers the contingent ...
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28 views

Does Kant merely assume that all other good things can be good *with* limitation in the absence of a good will?

To elaborate on my question: To argue that a good will is the only thing that is good without limitation, Kant must argue that all other good things are not good without limitation. To do this, doesn'...
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24 views

what is Russell's Neutral Monism and how does it differ from Spinoza's Substance Monism?

I have studied Spinoza, so you don't need to explain that part. For some reason, explanations of Russell on the internet don't get into my head, that's why I've come here.
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1answer
97 views

Proof of non-existence of causality? is this right?

Assumption 1: Existence has a cause(Causality) Assumption 2: Causality exists Because causality exists, there is a cause for causality to exist. The cause of the existence of causality is also ...
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1answer
72 views

The vagueness of everything around us

I would always wonder if the world (in general the physical form of universe) around us a myth and the only truth that exists is the absolute me. The ideas comes to me, the thoughts comes to me. For ...
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2answers
65 views

Could the Praxeology of the ASoE win the battle against the scientist agenda?

Praxeology is the method of the Austrian School of Ecnonomics. The Austrian School of Economics claims that Economics is a branch of phiolosophy [1], and because this uses the branch of the philosophy ...
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1answer
81 views

There is some simple refutation of scientism?

Aclarations Scientism (Science as Ideology) is the philosophical thesis that claims tha the emphirical science is at least the best source of knowledge. There are two kinds of scientism: Strong ...
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1answer
46 views

What is the difference between a model and algorithm?

I would say that an algorithm is a private case of model because it describes how something generally works --- just mathematically.
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21 views

Animal commodification

Is it morally or ethically justified to commodify animals (i.e., such as the tiger temple when it was a thing)? Should humans treat animals' ends (telos) with as much respect as we do ourselves? ...
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3answers
78 views

Is there any philosophical difference between "I have no horns" and "I have horns, but they have zero volume"?

The common idea is that, on one hand we have "I don't have X", on the other hand we have "I have X, but X has some its quality equal to zero, making it to behave the same way as if it ...
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1answer
42 views

Does Kuhn give an example of failed puzzle-solving?

Kuhn considers "puzzle-solving" to be a feature of normal science, i.e., attempts to solve problems that, according to a paradigm, are supposed to be solvable within certain constraints. He ...
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39 views

Does extra-, intra-polation fall under abduction, induction or deduction? [closed]

How does extrapolation relate to abduction, deduction, or induction? Scilicet, does abduction, deduction, or induction fully encompass extrapolation? Same question for interpolation. Does abduction, ...
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39 views

What is a euclidean triangle in Plato's Phaedo? What is the different between it and real triangle?

Which of the following are features of a true Euclidean triangle that exemplify its status as a Platonic Form? Is it can be known only by the intellect? Is it objective? Is it invisible? Is it ...
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2answers
61 views

Quis custodiet ipsos custodes? [closed]

Let's say that I have a group of people (group A) that want something, they have an overarching goal, but they don't completely realize it, and are at risk of losing sight of that goal. If this goal ...
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73 views

Does causality have a role in predicting the future compared to knowing the past?

Example: Buckling of a rod: It is easy to know the previous position of a buckled rod, but it is impossible to predict the direction of buckling from the unbuckled position. Does causality play any ...
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2answers
153 views

Understanding the difference between analytic/synthetic vs necessary/contingent

I was listening to a lecture by John Searle on philosophy of language and he mentions the classifications: analytic/synthetic and necessary/contingent. I am not sure what the difference is but using ...
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2answers
93 views

Are there scholarly works on philosophy of language treatment of the Gettier problem?

I found two essays on a kind of response to the Gettier problem. One is a Philosophy Now article, and another is a blog post. On both sources, they argue that Smith's belief (on the original Gettier ...
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2answers
72 views

Is falsity both true and false?

I have been thinking about the liar's paradox a lot lately (which I will post about soon), and I've run into a seemingly unrelated paradox. Consider this sentence: Falsity is both true and false. ...
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1answer
62 views

Scientism, Positivism Instumentalism

Positivists have been criticised for their scientism when in fact it seems that antipositivists are the ones that support scientism. Positivist try to exclude things from the label science, knowledge ...
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102 views

Does the Euthyphro Dilemma provide a reasonable basis that we can have objective morals without God?

The long defended claim of Christian apologetics is the idea of an objective morality only being possible with God. It is at this point where an atheist/agnostic will bring up the Euthyphro Dilemma. ...
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2answers
75 views

Are moral standards unchanging?

I've recently read a manga closely related to ethics here. In this manga, the old teacher mentions how our definition of "justice" seems to change from time to time. After afew re-reads, it ...
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1answer
28 views

Is Socrates a teacher despite him denying so?

Despite him denying that he actually taught his followers anything and that they did everything on their own accord, what argument could be put forth that he was actually a teacher

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