Some guy would probably tell me that  your small human mind can't comprehend it, but it can comprehend some things; it knows 1 + 1 has to be two, so its not like it knows nothing. For example, some arguments say that since everything must have a cause, there must be an uncaused cause; but I don't see how existence can't imply time; please explain to me.
"Some guy would probably tell me that it your small human mind can't comprehend it"
This is the point of Kant's antinomies, that time and infinity are a bafflement to reason, and so at least Kant starts again, from the point of view of mind, that "strikes a self", which Heidegger then rearranges as self making a change to self thus effecting time. And from this subjective, co-emergence of time an operational cognition can subsequently conceptualise a different kind of impersonal time: clock-time, which is then challenged by the understanding of a gravitational singularity in which clock-time is stretched to the limit. Now, in this context should we discuss beginnings and endings? : the remotest things we could possibly attempt, or shall we perhaps deal with what is at hand and what keeps this show on the road : the self generation of time that facilitates human existence. (Not as the existence of humans but the form of existence co-created by humans.)
"Some guy would probably tell me that  your small human mind can't comprehend it" Yes, that guy would be a Brittish Empiricist like Hume or Locke. They consider the mind to be a tabula rasa, a blank sheet of paper on which we can write whatever we want.
That seems fine and well, because after all, we learn go to school for many years to gain knowledge, and then spend even more years systematizing and expanding what we have learnt at school. Empirical knowledge seems like that's the only true and valid knowledge, however, as you said "but it can comprehend some things". What you meant to say is that you can comprehend them a priori, just with your reason, apart from any empirical sense data. 1 + 1 = 2 is an example of such knowledge.
Around 1750, a very smart young man named Immanuel Kant spent his whole youth thinking about empirical and a priori knowledge, and he came to an amazing conclusion that empiricists are wrong. They are right about some things, but the foundational concepts behind Hume's and Locke's philosophies are mistaken, in particular they are mistaken in their explanations of what causality is, and how we learn a priori truths like those of mathematics or metaphysics.
"it knows 1 + 1 has to be two, so its not like it knows nothing". Yes, the mind comes equipped with a priori cognitive faculties that allow you to learn mathematics and other abstract areas of knowledge.
"For example, some arguments say that since everything must have a cause, there must be an uncaused cause". That is another a priori truth that you know prior to any empirical dealings with the world.
Seems like you still have not read Kant's 'Critique of Pure Reason', so go ahead and start today! This book is what separates serious philosophers from amateurs. A philosophy professor will never take you seriously if you have not the 'Critique'. Doing philosophy without seriously studying Kant is like doing mathematics without knowing any calculus.