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We learn from writings of Descartes that he is always trying to seperate the rational mind from emotional mind and he trusts his rational mind while being sceptic to emotional mind. Also he has a highly deterministic point of view.

So in this context who can be "Anti-Descartes"?

I thought about Saint Augustine, Sextus Empiricus and Montaigne in this sense but I need more examples.

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  • Saint Augustine, Sextus Empiricus and Montaigne... all them lived earlier than Descartes. Commented Sep 11, 2023 at 6:02
  • Historically, British empiricists were, especially Hume, both on empiricism vs rationalism, and on elevating emotions over reason:"Reason is, and ought only to be the slave of the passions, and can never pretend to any other office than to serve and obey them." (T 2.3.3). And on Cartesian foundationalism, it was Peirce, who charged Descartes with "paper doubt" and reproducing his prejudices under the guise of "clear and distinct ideas".
    – Conifold
    Commented Sep 11, 2023 at 7:29
  • @MauroALLEGRANZA I am asking "whose ideas are opposite of Descartes?". Take the reverse of the question, "Whose ideas opposes Descartes?" In this sense somebody BEFORE Descartes can easily be "Anti-Descartes"
    – Nabla
    Commented Sep 11, 2023 at 9:39
  • The issue is that our modern concept of "mind" is 90% due to Descartes. Prior to him, there were soul; see Aristotle’s Psychology: "Aristotle maintains that various kinds of souls, nutritive, perceptual, and intellectual, form a kind of hierarchy. " Commented Sep 11, 2023 at 9:46
  • See also 17th and 18th Century Theories of Emotions Commented Sep 11, 2023 at 12:06

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  • At the time, the philosopher who disagreed most vigorously and publicly with Descartes was Pierre Gassendi -- now a forgotten figure, brilliant astronomer, philosopher, teacher, including of Cyrano de Bergerac -- who argued against Descartes's mechanistic, ultra-rational view of the universe and on many other things. He asked Descartes how an immaterial soul could possibly move a material body, perhaps the first one to raise this "antidescartes" point.
  • Early 20th century, somebody like Max Scheler who valued emotions as a different form of intelligence about ethics, social interactions, i.e. how we relate to alter egos aka other folks.
  • In France, the "personnalists" (Nicolas Berdiaev, Emmanuel Mounier) were on a similar wavelength.
  • Nowadays, someone like Hartmut Rosa, who values social intelligence, spirituality and "resonance" against the nefarious effects of modern materialism.

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