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In Alvin Goldman's article "What Is Justified Belief", what does "p is true for S at t" mean? where p is a proposition, S is a person and t is time.

More specifically, how is it different from "p is true"

The full proposal in the article is

proposition p is self-presenting if and only if: necessarily, for any S and any t, if p is true for S at t, then S believes p at t

Full article here (page 92)

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    Obviously a proposition and a specific person's JTB knowledge at a time of the said proposition are different... Sep 20, 2023 at 19:20
  • crazy question. there are different theories of what truth is.
    – user67675
    Sep 20, 2023 at 20:50
  • Please clarify your specific problem or provide additional details to highlight exactly what you need. As it's currently written, it's hard to tell exactly what you're asking.
    – Community Bot
    Sep 20, 2023 at 21:49
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    "Today is raining" is not true always: at t=monday it is true but at t=tuesday it is false. Sep 21, 2023 at 5:43
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    If you read the article, I'm sure he will explain in there what he means. If you did read the article and still don't understand, then you need to clarify your question by telling us what he said that you don't understand. Sep 21, 2023 at 5:51

1 Answer 1

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'I'm sleepy' is true for me now and not later. 'At t' merely introduces a temporal element in the claim. This statement is now just not a mere proposition, but a proposition about an event. 'For S' introduces an agent. If you were to provide the broader text, the purpose of the text would be made manifest.

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    The full proposal in the article is "proposition p is self-presenting if and only if: necessarily, for any S and any t, if p is true for S at t, then S believes p at t" Full article here : andrew.cmu.edu/user/kk3n/epistclass/goldmanjust.pdf (page 92)
    – Charles
    Sep 21, 2023 at 21:16
  • Okay. I downloaded it and while my answer suffices, I'll see if I can't add a little more as to why that particular elocution this week.
    – J D
    Sep 24, 2023 at 18:01

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