Apparently, this feeling/way of thinking is common and diverse enough as to not be associated with the name of a single school of thought. I think movements such as the boy scouts and people like Bear Grylls show/reflect that - although they may not be as deep and philosophically developed, they seem to have the same essential feeling.
Thoreau is the main figure that comes to mind when the subject is mentioned, although my take on "Walden" - the book where he describes his two years, two months and two days long experience living on his own in the woods - is that he did not immediately reject civilisation or technology as bad, but rather that he believed that, in his civilisation (19th century US), the technology was 'poorly employed' - something along the lines of "if the civilised man is that superior to the wild man [having native Americans in mind] then why in the civilised society there are several men without homes, while in the Indian tribes every family has a comfortable enough house to keep them warm in the winter? Why does the civilised man has to work his entire life to be the owner of his house, while the natives can build their tents in a few hours, camp there for how long as they want, put the tent down again in a few hours and leave when they please?" or "they're building a railroad from Texas to Maine, but Texas doesn't have anything important to say to Maine".
You might also wanna keep reading Jack London: it looks like he has similar ideas in more of his works - although, not as worried about the practical and economical aspects of it as Thoreau, but more on the mystical, individual aspects (not-that-informed opinion) -, I believe that "White Fang" inspired the guy from "Into the Wild" into doing what he did, among other things of course.
The author from the book that John S mentioned (in the referenced thread) also seems to be along those lines.
I would think that "simple living" would be a closely related and common term, although it doesn't seem to put as much emphasis on the reverence to nature part. "Simple living" makes Epicurus and Diogenes of Synope come to mind, although one might say that they don't mention nature as much because in their society they were already living close enough to it.
Lastly, I don't see much of those ideas in modern environmental movements, which seem to be more about keeping civilisation and a certain amount of technology without destroying nature while doing it.