I know David Hume in the 18th century had a critical position against the traditional view of free will or at least he is cited as a compatibilist. I wonder who were the first compatibilists and also who were the first incompatibilists against free will.
Well, Zeno and Chrysippus argued that everything is fated, as follows. “When a dog is tied to a cart, if it wants to follow it is pulled and follows, making its spontaneous act coincide with necessity, but if it does not want to follow it will be compelled in any case. So it is with men too: even if they do not want to, they will be compelled in any case to follow what is destined”. Diodorus Cronus also formulated an enigmatic argument (known as the Master Argument) as follows. It is clear, he says, that the following three propositions cannot all be true. 1. Everything true about the past is now necessary. (I.e. you can’t do anything about the past, it’s done).
(2) The impossible does not follow from the possible.
(3) There is something that is possible, and yet neither is nor will be true. (i.e. there are some possibilities that will never be realized, no matter how long you wait)
Diodorus accepted 1 and 2, and so rejected 3: whatever is possible either is true or is going to be true, he thought. So you can’t do anything about the future. The argument is entirely unclear, probably because key parts of it have been lost.