Since another (Peter) Unger was mentioned before and I want to counter the impression that critical theory is the only game in town, here is a quote from Roberto Mangabeira Unger (from The Self Awakened) where he expresses skepticism opposite the idea that we can arrive at correct understanding of what goes on at far reaches in space or far distances in time:
This [scientific] investigation carries us to orders and magnitudes of
reality far removed from the setting of human life in which
imagination can remain wedded to action. Now inquiry leaves action far
behind, and with this overreaching begins to draw pictures of the
world that no longer remain in communion with our experience of
manifest reality. Or it remains in such communion only be conjecturing
a long series of links between those pictures and this experience,
explaining, at the end of the chain of conjecture and experiment, how
we can perceive the world one way when it is in fact another way.
As far as I can tell he is skeptical of naturalism, i.e. also "skeptical even of scientific knowledge" (e.g. the idea that laws of physics never change). I don't think there is a direct link to Nietzsche's philosophy (or his style of philosophy) though.
UPDATE This recent article (in German, Google translation here) remarks on Nietzsche's influence on famous mountaineer Reinhold Messner, whose 70th birthday is today. Messner's many books also touch on questions of philosophy, e.g. the individual’s power against conformity (less so on skepticism).
On reflection, I now also think that there may be a relevant link between Roberto Mangabeira Unger and Friedrich Nietzsche, e.g. apparent in the first author's call to "life in such a way that we die only once" (but attenuated by his emphasis on community): Reinhold Messner would certainly agree to that call and he lived a life to show it: Happy birthday!