Are there any models of Human Cognition that do not require some physicallist concepts? Maybe a model of the Mind-brain system as a self-sustaining self-controlling 'behavioural-algorithm' processing and management system. Where the self-controlling processes and self-interactions can only be reduced to various fundemental 'behavioural-programs' and not further to various neuro-chemical events. One might ask how could a self-integrating system of 'behavioural-programs' interact with each other so as to keep their general functioning abilities intact and self-sustaining? Could a 'conglomeration' of behavioural-programs keep 'itself' functioning as a 'whole' and 'keep' all its relevent subprograms running smoothly so it is self sustaining and it can 'change' parts of itself witout sabotaging function? Maybe a study of the self-controlling ability of a well organised 'conglomeration' of behavioural 'programs' that all cooperate ( or any system of programs that 'work together') could explain the way the Mind-Brain is organised. What do you think?
This is an interesting topic. And there are some controversial theories about cognition.
There is the Computational Theory of Mind. This was proposed by Hilary Putnam in the middle 20th century.
In this theory the mind/brain is a computer, more exactly you can see the brain as the computer and and the mind as a program in execution on the brain. So thinking equals computing.
We are not really talking about modern digital computers here, we are interested in the theoretical sense, a computer handles symbols following an step by step procedure (an algorithm) to form output from input.
Mental states are representations. As you may know algorithms need the object input to be in some form of symbols, because the actual object can't be computed, only the representation of it.
In fact, Cognitive Science has strong links with Computational modeling/Artificial intelligence and its application to study mental processes.
Is interesting to note that this kind of theories born little later than Theoretical Computer Science. Alan Turing in his 1950 paper Computing Machinery and Intelligence argues against all the major objections to the proposition that "machines can think". He even created the famous Turing Test, wich in response originated the Chinese Room experiment. Altough there is some philosophical background about "machines" well before Alan Turing, for example in Descartes Discourse on the Method.
As a related thing, there is this book: The Emperor's New Mind: Concerning Computers, Minds and The Laws of Physics (1989). In wich Roger Penrose argue against the algorithmic approach for consciousness. He states that human consciousness can not be computable by a conventional Turing machine (wich is a Theoretical Computer Sicence model). And he hypothesizes about quantum mechanics playing a role in the understand of consciousness. Actually, there is a newer book from the same author extending the same topic.
Another books that may be of interest for you: