the principle of locality states that an object is only directly influenced by its immediate surroundings.
The first classical theory violated it:
In the 17th Century Newton's law of universal gravitation was formulated in terms of "action at a distance", thereby violating the principle of locality.
Newton of course was aware of this:
It is inconceivable that inanimate Matter should, without the Mediation of something else, which is not material, operate upon, and affect other matter without mutual Contact…That Gravity should be innate, inherent and essential to Matter, so that one body may act upon another at a distance thro' a Vacuum, without the Mediation of any thing else, by and through which their Action and Force may be conveyed from one to another, is to me so great an Absurdity that I believe no Man who has in philosophical Matters a competent Faculty of thinking can ever fall into it.
Gravity must be caused by an Agent acting constantly according to certain laws; but whether this Agent be material or immaterial, I have left to the Consideration of my readers.
—Isaac Newton, Letters to Bentley, 1692/3
That is he 'gives' up on the problem; luckily so - as it took 350 years and the genius of Lorentz, Poincare and Einstein to return locality to Gravitation; they had already by then had the example of Coulombs force which also violated locality but which was resolved by Maxwell.
Is this a principle one that originates with Newton (despite his lack of success in incorporating it); or one that had already been thought through?
Its the same principle that makes violations of locality in QM problematic.
Leibniz has a principle of Continuity:
“Nothing takes place suddenly, and it is one of my great and best confirmed maxims that nature never makes leaps.”
But its not clear to me that this helps.