One more revolution around the sun = mark of solstice (sort of .. actually it's a couple of weeks afterwards) = something that affects everyone globally, so we all find a way to mark the actual percieved or agreed specific time that this event occurs.
How does it affect our persepective about time and traditions?
If you consider it as marking a completion of the orbit of the sun (ie, a pattern of expected weather and daylight has completed), then it marks a time like the harvest festival or the summer solstice which is directly related to farming and gathering of crops etc, and probably goes back to early man. Stonehenge is 4,000 years old (possibly older) and has been thught of as a computer for predicting seasons. Nearby Avebury Standing Stones (also v. old) almost certainly is.
But a more modern take is that the old calendar for last year has run out and now I need to buy a new diary, haha. With that comes a notion of "well that's how I handled last year, how am I going to handle this year?" which I guess is where new year's resolutions come from. That notion of "improvement on last time" must be pretty ancient.
Regarding perspective of time : If we didn't celebrate or note new year, then we'd fix on something else like christmas, birthday, or a solstice. It's natural for us to identify regular markers and check ourselves against them. I mean it's natural in that such things as the solstice, or midday, or movements of the moon, have presented themselves and probably helped define our notion of time: A measurement of cycles of a regularly occurring event.