These definitions are all, according to Spinoza, "concerning God".
By that which is self-caused, I mean that of which the essence involves existence, or that of which the nature is only conceivable as existent.
There is only one thing the essence of which involves existence and the nature of which is best described as existent: the Universe, which Spinoza equated philosophically with the term, "God". The universe is God, because it is eternal and cannot be destroyed. Thus, God is immortal.
In definition VIII, Spinoza stated:
I understand Eternity (aeternitus) to be existence itself...
Coincidentally, the Holy Bible (KJV) corroborates the same definition.
And Moses said unto God, Behold, when I come unto the children of Israel, and shall say unto them, The God of your fathers hath sent me unto you; and they shall say to me, What is his name? what shall I say unto them?
And God said unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM: and he said, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you.
(I believe there is enough similarity in the context between the new and old testaments, regarding the nature of God, to allow for subtle semantic differences between the original languages of Hebrew and Greek, and the subsequent translations into English.)
A thing is called finite after its kind, when it can be limited by another thing of the same nature; for instance, a body is called finite because we always conceive another greater body. So, also, a thought is limited by another thought, but a body is not limited by thought, nor a thought by body.
There is only one Universe, therefore there is no other thing of the same nature as the universe, thus the universe ("God") is infinite. If the universe/God is an infinite being, then it is also omniscient.
In definition VI, Spinoza stated:
God (Deus) I understand to be a being absolutely infinite, that is, a substance consisting of infinite attributes, each of which expresses eternal and infinite essence.
From this I should deduce that there is only one God (a single, infinite substance), and that God is omnipotent (consists of infinite attributes, etc.). Again, if one of those attributes is Mind, then God is also necessarily omniscient.
By substance, I mean that which is in itself, and is conceived through itself; in other words, that of which a conception can be formed independently of any other conception.
Spinoza on substance and mind:
God, or substance, consisting of infinite attributes, of which each expresses eternal and infinite essentiality, necessarily exists.
Substance absolutely infinite is indivisible.
Whatsoever [exists], [exists] in God, and without God nothing can be, or be conceived.
Wherefore it can in nowise be said, that God is passive in respect to anything other than himself, or that extended substance is unworthy of the Divine nature, even if it be supposed divisible, so long as it is granted to be infinite and eternal.
Hence it follows, that the human mind is part of the infinite intellect of God; thus when we say, that the human mind perceives this or that, we make the assertion, that God has this or that idea, not in so far as he is infinite, but in so far as he is displayed through the nature of the human mind, or in so far as he constitutes the essence of the human mind; and when we say that God has this or that idea, not only in so far as he constitutes the essence of the human mind, but also in so far as he, simultaneously with the human mind, has the further idea of another thing, we assert that the human mind perceives a thing in part or inadequately.
Based on the premises given here, one might conclude:
- The human species / human individuals are attributes / subsets of the Universe ("God").
- Human minds are subsets of the mind of God, and were/are created or conceived by God.
- Therefore, as the Universe is infinite and omniscient, it necessarily knows everything about us: our thoughts, activities, and even the number and quality of atoms and elements composing the cells of our bodies.
- And, as our characteristic bodies are rather finite, we can only possess a finite amount of knowledge, according to our particular abilities.
- Human beings are capable of consciousness or awareness of the Universe, or "God".
- All things conceived of or created by God, are divine.
- Human beings are also similarly capable of conception and creativity, but at a drastically limited, finite level of aptitude.
- God is the source of all goodness, life, and intelligence.
- To disregard God (the Universe) or to treat it dismissively or disrespectfully -- is absurd.
...remembering that we are a part of universal nature, and that we follow her order. If we have a clear and distinct understanding of this, that part of our nature which is defined by intelligence, in other words the better part of ourselves, will assuredly acquiesce in what befalls us, and in such acquiescence will endeavor to persist. For, in so far as we are intelligent beings, we cannot desire anything save that which is necessary, nor yield absolute acquiescence to anything, save to that which is true: wherefore, in so far as we have a right understanding of these things, the endeavor of the better part of ourselves is in harmony with the order of nature as a whole.
Again, since the essence of our mind consists solely in knowledge, whereof the beginning and the foundation is God, it becomes clear to us, in what manner and way our mind, as to its essence and existence, follows from the divine nature and constantly depends on God. I have thought it worth while here to call attention to this, in order to show by this example how the knowledge of particular things, which I have called intuitive or of the third kind, is potent, and more powerful than the universal knowledge, which I have styled knowledge of the second kind. For, although in Part I. I showed in general terms, that all things (and consequently, also, the human mind) depend as to their essence and existence on God, yet that demonstration, though legitimate and placed beyond the chances of doubt, does not affect our mind so much, as when the same conclusion is derived from the actual essence of some particular thing, which we say depends on God.
The Ethics, by Benedict de Spinoza (Translated from the Latin by R. H. M. Elwes)
Ethics, Proved in Geometrical Order, Divided Into Five Parts ("Spinoza's Ethics" published by J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd., London), by Benedict de Spinoza