If you look in Russells History of Western Philosophy you'll see that he posits Thales as the first Western Philosopher; Thales said everything is made of water. Quite what he made of it is difficult to say. Still, Russell suggests that this description meant that there were no supernatural explanations - Thales didn't say that the gods were behind everything. Russell also suggests that it is also a monistic theory, meaning only one principle behind the world; in the sense that everything came from water.
This then (skipping a few other philosophers) brings us to Parmenides; who said nothing is not; and using this provides a strong argument (half of which has come down to us) shoring up Thales monism; according to him all is one, eternal and without motion.
This now might sound ridiculous: but here is one interpretation - the laws governing physics were many in the 16th Century - Gravity, Electrical, Magnetic, Heat and in the 20 Century a couple more were added - the Strong and the Weak.
Now, all of these forces have been slowly combined into one theory - first Heat was identified with motion; and then with energy. The electrical and magnetic force were combined into electromagnetism; and then this with the Strong and Weak force.
Quantum Gravity is an umbrella term which combines everything into one theory - or as it was jocularly named - TOE - The Theory of Everything; there are a few results in this direction; but most of it is quite uncertain.
Now let us take this progression and look at it with a philosophical eye on Parmenides (and therefore Thales)
All is One
we see the many laws being slowly eroded in number; so we posit that there is one universal law.
There is no motion
Not only that, this law must be unchanging - ie without change, without motion (motion was understood differently by the Greeks; if one looks in Aristotles Physics for example - motion in its widest aspect is change).
It is eternal
Finally one aspect of its universality, is that it must be eternal - that is valid for all time.
Thus we've provided an interpretation of Parmenides notion that links up with Modern Physics.
But consider now, not an interpretation but its importance. Historically some philosophers were uncomfortable with the vanishing of change, and posited atoms; now each atom is a Parmenidian One - eternal and unchanging; and the atoms move in the Void.
This concept, is of course one of the most important ones in Modern Physics - and there has been much work around this notion; so an argument against Parmenides was significant in the development of Modern Physics.