I'm looking to find writings on military thought. Not in the sense of tactics or history of war, but in the sense of being in or running a military force in the abstract. Ideally, possible topics would include questions of organization, discipline, military ethics, and so on. In theory, this could also work with something that looked at a particular military institution and examined military life through that, similarly to Absolutely American about West point. Any recommendations?
The most famous philosophical work on military matters is Sun Tzu's The Art of War. Although thousands of years old, it outlines general principles still applicable today, and although largely about tactics, it also is centrally concerned with "running a military force in the abstract."
The classical reference for ground warfare in the European style has been the texts of Clausewitz (q.v. http://www.clausewitz.com/) for a few generations. He made logical sense of most of Napoleon's actions for the next generation, and since Napoleon was too busy running things to try to explain himself, he is taken as the summary of the military thinking of the European Classical period running from Alexander the Great to Revolutionary France.
Thereafter, the speed of technological change made everyone back off to a higher level of abstraction. His theory of internal lines does not make metaphorical sense in a modern theater where the lines of combat are not as obvious (e.g. aircraft, tactical explosives, guerilla skirmish, etc.). But his thinking is thorough and precise, and in certain ways, it does extend to modern life.
For the psychological/philosophical side of military thought, D. Grossman's book On Killing could be relevant - while it covers a rather narrower topic compared to the whole military life as such, it is probably the main distinction between the mentality of military and other high risk occupations and organizations.