I have recently come across Thomas Nagel's book "Mind and Cosmos: Why the Materialist Neo-Darwinian Conception of Nature Is Almost Certainly False", which I've only skimmed. I've also just finished reading "What's it like to be a bat".
He vehemently argues against materialism, and is a prominent dualist. He claims there is more to consciousness than can be explained by evolution alone, and that the emergence of life and intelligence must have a teleological explanation. Teleological here meaning that there was purpose or intention in the way life and humans evolved.
He is also an atheist and maintains that he is not a proponent of intelligent design, even if he has argued that ID shouldn't be dismissed offhand the way the scientific community does, because it asks the right questions, even if it doesn't have the right answers.
To summarize his position:
- Reductionist materialism and evolution don't explain life and consciousness.
- Life has a teleological origin.
- There is no God.
- Life was designed with a purpose, but there is no designer.
- Although he calls himself and atheist, isn't this really pantheism?
- Is this related to Hegel's world spirit?
- If this is not pantheism, can this be construed as some (very convoluted) form of emergentism?