example of the second argument.

'ad-duniya' (an arabic word) means 'nearer'. the word is denoted 115 times in Quran. In some cases the word 'ad-duniya' has been used for the meaning 'this world'. So the term 'world' is denoted 115 times in Quran.

  • The relationship between word ('ad-duniya') and object (the world) is not a relationship of set inclusion ... Jul 15, 2015 at 15:31
  • #1 and #2 are different types of arguments. the example is for #2. #1 is about set.
    – Sumit Roy
    Jul 15, 2015 at 15:44
  • Being a subset, a part, or coming from applies to objects or sets of objects. Being true or false applies to propositions. A chair a table or a piece of wood is not true or false, and "the chair is red" is not part of an object. You should reformulate your question. Jul 17, 2015 at 3:30

1 Answer 1


1 is Fallacy of Composition, assuming what is true of a part is true of the whole.

2 is Fallacy of Division, assuming what is true of the whole (the complete list of usages of "ad-duniya") is also true of a part (the proper subset of times that "ad-duniya" is meant as meaning "world").

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