It's generally taken that Galileo established the concept of mass; and usually this is illustrated by the apocrophyl story of two cannon-balls of differing size thrown simultaneously from the top of a tower.
But in fact he had a theoretical argument, which I suppose is in his Dialogue on Two World Systems (the Ptolmeic and Aristotelian).
Is this supposition correct?
Lucretious also had an argument for mass, which he reported in De Rerum Natura as:
... lastly, why do we see two
Objects of the same size differ in their weight? Instead,
If a ball of yarn contains the same amount of mass as lead,
Then they should weigh the same, since mass's property is to press
All downwards, while the property of void is weightlessness
This, I suppose is the same argument in Galileo.
Is this supposition too also correct? Or is there some substantive difference?
I'm not, if it needs saying, disputing the efficacy of modern physics; but simply establishing consonance a and differences between different modes of physical thinking at different times.
It's worth adding, given the comments below, and to avoid confusion that the above notion of mass, is not to be understood anachronistically as either inertial or gravitational mass - as it appears in Newtonian Mechanics - but closer to the notion of mole in chemistry.