Yes, there are many "philosophical theories" that have been refuted by the majority of experts.
An obvious example is Thales identification of "water" as the irreducible substance. Many pre-Socratic "theories" of this sort spring to mind. But the "refutation" only comes about by the subdivision of philosophy itself into other fields of "expertise," notably physics, mathematics, history, doctrinal theology, or psychology, in which the refutation occurs.
Once the propositions become "refutable" by expert consensus, they are almost by definition no longer "philosophy." Thus, in regard to your question, people often scoff that philosophy "makes no progress" or "arrives at no conclusions." But this is because it constantly seeds other fields that are able to "progress scientifically" towards consensus by no longer being philosophy.
A more recent example may be Cartesian dualism, which we can at least say is "extremely unfashionable" in philosophy and appears to have "calved off" almost entirely into psychology, cognitive sciences, and so forth. Various other theories, such as vitalism, Aristotelian cosmology, certain identity theories, the positivist reduction of math to logic, proofs of god, strict correspondence theories of truth, etc., appear to have been jettisoned by broad consensus for the foreseeable future.
But philosophy remains historical, dialectical, and open. Any topic can be ingeniously reopened. It also remains a huge, growing body of textual expertise still divided into the two (Continental and Anglo-American) genealogies set in motion by Husserl and Frege, and thus culturally impervious to any "consensus of experts." Since the aim of each new theoretical project is, ideally, to become "irrefutable," consensus would mean the death of dialectic and any sort of expert "refutation" by appeal to experiment or logic would mean reclassification as a "science" or mathematics.
It is also worth noting how those dominant, massively influential philosophical projects that attempt to "wrap it all up," e.g. Aristotle, Aquinas, Spinoza, Hegel, Wittgenstein's Tractatus no sooner engender a body of "experts" than they fall prey to skeptical analysis, redefinition, and Oedipal, generational assault.