This is very good and possibly tragic question, and I am not the best one to answer it. But the short answer is: No.
There is no faster "royal road," as Euclid first phrased it, to either mathematics or philosophy. Unlike the natural sciences, philosophy never erases its history. Thales and Heraclitus are still studied. Unlike mathematics there is no illusion of axiomatic closure and no obvious place to begin, except historically.
So, one way to start is at the beginning. Whatever your field, it is always good to study some Plato. In your case, if you take a course you may want to look at his relationship with the Pythagoreans. You might also look at some related mathematical history. For example, the way in which Greek geometrical proofs using only straight edge, compass, and hand movements. No numbers. Do not neglect the history of your field, which does intersect with ancient philosophy.
Or you could go in the other direction.
Modern philosophy begins with Descartes, who, as you may know, was the first to link geometry and algebra. It continues up to Kant. And here you must be alerted to a fork in the road, referred to in philosophy as the "Continental" and "Analytic" traditions, and commencing roughly with Husserl and Frege.
The "Analytic" tradition leans far more heavily on mathematics and logic. So this may be more in line with your interests. I would say that its central concern is how mathematics, whatever that is, links to logic and then language. But be aware, if you read or take a course in recent "analytical" philosophy about, say, logic, possible worlds, computing, AI, and such, that's fine, but you are not engaging with philosophy per se, from Thales and Plato all the way through to Kant, Husserl, Hegel, Heidegger, Sartre, etc.
In the "Continental" tradition, on the other hand, "phenomenology" and "hermeneutics" hold sway. Or did...this old divide is now regularly breached. The common ground between both traditions is, to simplify, the meaning and structure of "language." And my guess is that you went into math because you perhaps subconsciously find "language" frustrating. Very understandable, very "Analytic."
One good thing about analytical philosophy is that the terminology does not proliferate quite as rapidly as in the "Continental" tradition, where each philosopher tends to reconstruct his/her own terminology... very annoying, but there is usually a good reason. Language is real, unavoidable, and not axiomatic.
Assuming you are still in school, I would make three suggestions.
First, just take a beginning in philosophy course or a course on Plato, if you haven't already. Two, get a couple of books on the history of mathematics, which leads back into philosophy. Three, just invest in a good dictionary of philosophical terms so you can look up "epistemology"and "constructivism" and all those other terms. It just takes a bit of time and usage, like learning in French.
If you find you have a taste for it, perhaps take a course on Descartes. If you love mathematics, you really should get acquainted with the old, frustrating "spouse of mathematics," philosophy.