One interesting aspect of Kants cultural influence is Asimovs three laws of robotics, and his zeroth law - by which he investigates various ethical dilemmas that the introduction of robots have in human society; these are I would suggest direct or indirectly influenced by the various formulas of Kants categorical imperative.
The other possible influence is one suggested by Bardis Fifth Postulate, where he writes that Gauss after reaching the University of Gottingen in the early 19C
read [Kants first] Critique five times, because it conceptualised space
This raises the possibility, given that Gauss is generally given the credit for discovering non-Euclidean geometry (though Bolyai and Lobachevsky published first) that he was directly influenced by Kantian concepts; this reading definitely goes against almost all secondary literature I've seen - for example Bardi himself repeats this, as does Deutsch; however when one actually turns to the primary literature and examines the section in question where Kant touches on concepts of space (The Transcendental Aesthetic - A25), one finds:
Space is not a discursive, or as is said, a general concept of things in relation, but a pure intuition ... from this it follows that in respect to it an a priori intuition (which is not empirical) grounds all concepts of it.
Thus also all geometrical principles, e.g. that in a triangle two sides together of a triangle are always greater than the third, are never derived from general concepts of line and triangle, but rather are derived from intuition, and indeed are derived with apodictic certainty.
In Kants compressed language, this means that it is not neccessarily the case that triangles, given their axiomatic definition in (Euclidean) Geometry, must have the sum of any two sides greater than the third.
This isn't how non-Euclidean geometry is usually presented; a more standard treatment would most likely state that triangles do not neccesarily have their internal angles add up to 180 degrees (less would be hyperbolic, more is spherical); here however, is Cavailles exegesis:
A triangle is a closed figure, with three sides and three angles. If we analyse the concept of a triangle, the concept of the angle of a triangle, can we deduce purely from these concepts that the angles should [neccesarily] add upto 180 degrees? Kant holds we cannot. (Therefore the judgement is synthetic)
The parallels with the actual extract from Kant should be clear.
It's worth noting here the parallel denial of neccessity by Gauss in a letter written to Olbers in 1816, and referenced by Bardi:
I am becoming more and more convinced that the neccesity of our geometry cannot be proved.
This to me, makes it very plausible, despite the large secondary literature which says otherwise, that Gauss was directly influenced by Kant in guiding his attention to discovering a consistent non-Euclidean geometry by opening the possibility that there could possibly be one.
Of course, this would mean that Kant would have had an indirect influence on Einsteins SR and GR - given their use of such geometries.