I have just completed an introductory course in the philosophy of science. In it, the distinction was made between cause and explanation using the example of identities. So, for example, if we use the popular PSE statement "Water is H2O", then this explains what water is, but it does not say what causes two hydrogen atoms and an oxygen atom to be water.
The two concepts are obviously intimately related to one another. As relations they are both transitive, but neither symmetric nor reflexive.
Q: Other than identities, are there any examples that highlight this distinction?
TL/DR; At first I thought that fundamental principles may provide an example. E.g., Einstein's model explains gravity as the bending of space in the presence of mass, but it does not say what causes space to bend in the presence of mass. However, one could equally say that gravity is caused by the bending of space in the presence of mass without explaining why space bends in the presence of mass.