In reading Koji Karatani's Transcritique, I found myself a bit confused by the distinctions and couplings he draws between these terms in relation to Hegel and Russell. It wasn't actually his approach (I'm not asking about Karatani), but my own poor grasp of traditional metaphysics and vague understanding of these terms.
If we take on the one hand, the one/particular/individual/singular and on the other the many/universal/general/multiple what is the best way to sort them out? Are any now considered synonymous, interchangeable, or redundant? Are they always paired up as dichotomies in the order I've given above? How consistent is their treatment, from Aristotle (I believe that's the origin) to the present? What are some of the key texts or historical turns related to such distinctions?
I realize this is a big list of questions, overly broad, and I certainly don't expect a "complete" answer. But I would appreciate some general outline or overview of these classic dichotomies. And I'd like to know in what form, if any, they remain "live" questions for analytical philosophy today.