I have to admit, that I don't know this: I know that before Kant there were two groups of people that saw the world differently and Kant somehow synthesized the two positions and afterwords Hegel had something to criticized about his work and this is known as the "linguistic turn". As you can see I don't know anything about one of the most important discourses in the history of philosophy and I want to change that. Please help me understand how this is all interconnected.

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    Which sources have you read already? Have you looked at some basic encyclopedia articles on Kant and Hegel? Or read any introductory works on the history of philosophy? Jul 4 '12 at 22:05
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    From your question I gather that you are probably referring to Kant's version of idealism. However, I think Kant's contributions to moral philosophy had a wider impact outside of philosophy itself, so Kant shouldn't be reduced to his accomplishments regarding idealism. Jul 5 '12 at 7:32
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    Before Kant the philosophers were strongly divided between the empiricist and rationalist schools of thought. Kant bridged that gap and also refuted a great deal of skepticism, all within the Critique of Pure Reason. I'm not really in a position to speak on Hegel but google reveals lots... have you done any of your own research here?
    – stoicfury
    Jul 5 '12 at 10:19
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    this is extremely broad... perhaps you should try to focus a little from what you know? it is hard to make a good question on something you know nothing about, and "tell me all about it" is not a real question...
    – Tames
    Jul 5 '12 at 14:40
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    I'm going to close this for now pending some revision. We want to encourage people to do their own basic research before they ask a question...
    – stoicfury
    Jul 16 '12 at 1:38

There are 4 pillars of European philosophy: Plato, Aristotle, Kant and Hegel. As you can see there was 2000 year gap between second and third.

As for his accomplishments.. you could have simply opened a wiki: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immanuel_Kant#Influence

Kant's influence on Western thought has been profound. Over and above his influence on specific thinkers, Kant changed the framework within which philosophical inquiry has been carried out. He accomplished a paradigm shift: very little philosophy is now carried out as an extension, or in the style of pre-Kantian philosophy. This shift consists in several closely related innovations that have become axiomatic, in philosophy itself and in the social sciences and humanities generally:

  • Kant's "Copernican revolution", that placed the role of the human subject or knower at the center of inquiry into our knowledge, such that it is impossible to philosophize about things as they are independently of us or of how they are for us;
  • His invention of critical philosophy, that is of the notion of being able to discover and systematically explore possible inherent limits to our ability to know through philosophical reasoning
  • His creation of the concept of "conditions of possibility", as in his notion of "the conditions of possible experience" – that is that things, knowledge, and forms of consciousness rest on prior conditions that make them possible, so that, to understand or to know them, we must first understand these conditions
  • His theory that objective experience is actively constituted or constructed by the functioning of the human mind
  • His notion of moral autonomy as central to humanity
  • His assertion of the principle that human beings should be treated as ends rather than as means
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    it would be nice to get something other than ctrl+c ctrl+v from wiki. Anyway, I consider the question itself problematic to begin with
    – Tames
    Jul 15 '12 at 22:25
  • Plato, Aristotle, Kant and Hegel as the "4 pillars of European philosophy" is an interesting selection... :P
    – stoicfury
    Jul 16 '12 at 1:36

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