I have to admit, that I don't know this: I know that before Kant there were two groups of people that saw the world differently and Kant somehow synthesized the two positions and afterwords Hegel had something to criticized about his work and this is known as the "linguistic turn". As you can see I don't know anything about one of the most important discourses in the history of philosophy and I want to change that. Please help me understand how this is all interconnected.
There are 4 pillars of European philosophy: Plato, Aristotle, Kant and Hegel. As you can see there was 2000 year gap between second and third.
As for his accomplishments.. you could have simply opened a wiki: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immanuel_Kant#Influence
Kant's influence on Western thought has been profound. Over and above his influence on specific thinkers, Kant changed the framework within which philosophical inquiry has been carried out. He accomplished a paradigm shift: very little philosophy is now carried out as an extension, or in the style of pre-Kantian philosophy. This shift consists in several closely related innovations that have become axiomatic, in philosophy itself and in the social sciences and humanities generally:
- Kant's "Copernican revolution", that placed the role of the human subject or knower at the center of inquiry into our knowledge, such that it is impossible to philosophize about things as they are independently of us or of how they are for us;
- His invention of critical philosophy, that is of the notion of being able to discover and systematically explore possible inherent limits to our ability to know through philosophical reasoning
- His creation of the concept of "conditions of possibility", as in his notion of "the conditions of possible experience" – that is that things, knowledge, and forms of consciousness rest on prior conditions that make them possible, so that, to understand or to know them, we must first understand these conditions
- His theory that objective experience is actively constituted or constructed by the functioning of the human mind
- His notion of moral autonomy as central to humanity
- His assertion of the principle that human beings should be treated as ends rather than as means