This is a tough question, but consider the following scenario:
In my lab, I mix 2 moles of pure Sodium with 2 moles of H20, which produces the following reaction:
2Na(s) + 2H2O → 2NaOH(aq) + H2(g) + some heat
The fact that I just mixed my Sodium and water means that in a couple seconds I will have a couple spare moles of aqueous NaOH and Hydrogen gas, with some heat to boot. We understand basic chemistry to such a deep level that it's nearly impossible to argue that this will not take place.
However, there are some unspoken assumptions here: we're assuming that a meteorite is not going to come flying through the air and into a vat of HCl, causing a new reaction to take place with the Water. We're assuming that no one will throw a rock through the window, causing them same. We're assuming a massive earthquake won't take place and cause the sodium to fall out of my beaker and into a miles-deep crevasse. I could go on.
Generally, when we make scientific predictions, especially predictions that fit a well-tested theory, we're saying "Given what we know about our universe (which is entirely physical and deterministic), the results of past experiments, and barring any unforeseen circumstances, X will happen if certain prior conditions are met". However, in daily parlance, we're often saying things like "The sun will rise tomorrow," or "The Boston Red Sox will win" which forgo some of the formality of strictly scientific statements of theories.
Specifically, the only kinds of "facts" we can assume about the future are tautologies: it's always going to be true that water = H20, it's never going to be true that triangles have 4 sides, it's never going to be true that T = F, etc. But these aren't predictions in the sense that you're asking for, they're just trivially true by definition.
TL;DR - there are facts about the future, but they are sort of trivial. There are good predictions about the future, but they rely on assumptions of normality and induction, to some degree. It appears what your professor is saying is that there are no non-trivial facts about the future which we can know with absolute certainty.