I am not talking about miracles, religious revelation, or artistic expression, but something more mundane. There is a lot of "empirical" evidence that the Riemann hypothesis is true, the scare quotes indicate that the source of the evidence is "mathematical intuition". In psychology there are mental states that no one sees, touches, hears, smells or tastes, qualia with their perceptual fullness that can not be conceptualized or directly communicated, and abilities/skills "know how" with the same problem. In linguistics Kripke's theory of reference relies on "modal intuitions" to decide the truth of counterfactuals. But an empirical counterfactual is an oxymoron, especially when it is embedded into an entire "possible world".
Freudian psychoanalysis and Husserlian phenomenology are attempts to deal with some of them systematically, but they are traditionally confined to the fringe of science at best. The mainstream approach is empirical second hand, but behaviorism in psychology and linguistics, and nominalism in mathematics, were not very productive.
According to the naturalized epistemology there is no a priori "first philosophy" of science, methodology is subject to the "tribunal of experience" and revision, just as the science itself. Should it apply to non-empirical experience? Sense empiricism has served science well for centuries, and was fully embraced by Quine. Zammito takes him to task for it:
"Cognitive science is an empirical science working to unearth the mechanisms through which natural language constitutes itself. That account has had to recognize the indispensability of mental states, of beliefs, if it is ever to become adequate to the problem... There is still too much "first philosophy" in Quine. We must rescue naturalized epistemology from its own founder".
Note the use of "empirical" together with "mental states".
Questions: Does naturalized epistemology dictate that natural science should relax sense empiricism, and approach non-empirical phenomena partly first hand? If so, how can the scientific method be adapted to introspective/intuitive phenomena that are not readily reproducible, manipulable, measurable, and/or publicly accessible? What would play the selective role of empirical testing? Can there be non-empirical (more likely, not entirely empirical) natural science?