In "A History of Modern Psychology", Schultz & Schultz, 10th edition we read

A century before Titchener’s work, the German philosopher Immanuel Kant had written that any attempt at introspection necessarily altered the conscious experience being studied because it introduced an observing variable into the content of the conscious experience.

Can you please point me to the philosopher's exact work where he states the aforementioned?

  • 1
    See Kant's View of the Mind for references to Kant, The Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science (1786). – Mauro ALLEGRANZA May 14 '16 at 10:02
  • Regarding introspection there are §§ 4 and 7 in his Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View where he adresses the doubling of the self in acts of introspection and reflection on the "I". I do not have an english copy of the text, therefore I cannote quote here, though. – Philip Klöcking May 14 '16 at 10:29


Yet the empirical doctrine of the soul must remain even further from the rank of a properly so-called natural science than chemistry. In the first place, because mathematics is not applicable to the phenomena of inner sense and their laws [...].

[In the second place,] however, the empirical doctrine of the soul can also never approach chemistry even as a systematic art of analysis or experimental doctrine, for in it the manifold of inner observation can be separated only by mere division in thought, and cannot then be held separate and recombined at will (but still less does another thinking subject suffer himself to be experimented upon to suit our purpose), and even observation by itself already changes and displaces the state of the observed object [*emphasis added]. Therefore, the empirical doctrine of the soul can never become anything more than an historical doctrine of nature, and, as such, a natural doctrine of inner sense which is as systematic as possible, that is, a natural description of the soul, but never a science of the soul, nor even, indeed, an experimental psychological doctrine.

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