What does it mean to be constrained by Epistemology? Can I "know" something without actually experiencing it? If I am but one person do I in fact know anything?

Let me provide specificity to the question to aid those who have answers such that I may get a specific response if such responses are forthcoming.

If I am planning a "surprise" (birthday Party, attack, loss based on Wall Street expectations) how can I or "others" know it was a surprise without experiencing some type of reaction?

Major Jeffery O'Leary of the Airpower Journal 1994 is one source I am now reading. I am trying to determine if there is some type of "biological encoding" that causes us as humans to want/not want "surprises." It seems uniquely human to me.

  • (edited 2x to merge further details from OP).
    – virmaior
    May 18, 2016 at 23:57
  • The more details you're adding the less I understand the question...
    – virmaior
    May 19, 2016 at 1:19
  • Your question is intriguing, but only slightly. I am reminded of Shannon's "information theory," in which the reduction of uncertainty can be measured by the "quantity of surprise." But I am reluctant to write any sort of answer when the question is so vaguely framed. I really don't understand what you are getting at. And while the reference to "Major Jeffery O'Leary of the Airpower Journal 1994" is also intriguingly esoteric and antiquated, you might want to leave that out. I doubt that Major O'Leary has qualified interpreters on this site. May 19, 2016 at 1:29
  • I only just Google searched "surprise" and his Spring 1994 claims on "the need for revisions to doctrinal matters" concerning military issues relating to "surprise attacks in the information Age" came up. I can understand people being put off by the "war lobby's" interest in wanting to discuss the issue as it relates to say an "information exchange" (a term first coined in the 1980's.) From reading the article I did not detect any interest in or knowledge of Total Information Awareness, Serial Rendition, the USA Patriot Act etc so in that sense I found it rather refreshing but yes dated. May 19, 2016 at 1:40


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