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How to get started with philosophy without getting overwhelmed quickly?

What is a good book (Or online resource) that introduces Philosophy and the methods of Philosophers, not by example only, but also with clear statements of what is being done?

I am reading a book on Philosophy of Science, and I understood the idea of Inductivism, and how Hume disregarded it as a real (actual) justification for science; but then, I was (briefly?) introduced to 10 arguments of why we should consider it as "working" (i.e. providing a justification). When that happened, I found myself bombarded with arguments that I mostly couldn't comprehend (either did not understand or they seemed unconvincing).

I'm not interested in a book that tells me to argue, and shows me some arguments. I'm interested in a book that clearly illustrates how a philosopher does Philosophy. That would be more convenient and more helpful. In my case, I have short time to finish the book on Philosophy of Science, and so I want to be able to do it with some clarity.

marked as duplicate by Michael Dorfman, Joseph Weissman Aug 30 '12 at 15:12

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You're laboring under a false presumption if you think there's such a thing as a book which will tell you what it is philosopher's do that doesn't include a description of how basic formal arguments work. In a sense, that is how philosophers "do philosophy".

To that end, though, I've been greatly enjoying the book The Philosopher's Toolkit. You won't be able to avoid reading about some basics of formal argumentation, but it's proven to be quite good at summarizing the methods.

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