According to Marx, who remains one of the most astute and comprehensive critics of Capitalism, it is a system of social organization that has only the abstract quantitative "goal" of the self-accumulation of "value," which is measured by, though not the same as, money.
He used the simple formula M-C-M' to describe the process of money becoming Capital becoming more money, etc. There is no "end" goal, or eschatology, simply the eternal repetition of this process. The process, to capitalist apologists, continually elevates production and the general living standard. Such progress is then measured by a rising stock market and GDP.
This is all very well, except for the internal contradictions that Marx and others have analyzed. And as philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre has pointed out, this means there is no "common good" to provide political, social, or moral orientation. There is only self-interest on a mass scale and a continual division and accumulation property, which is presumably transformed, "as if by an invisible hand" into the greater good.
Moreover, the division of "surplus value" is highly unequal between owners of capital (major shareholders) and owners of labor (employees), and this inequality will only increase, causing social stresses. Without going into detail, Marx also diagnosed other necessary ills such as overproduction, waves of unemployment, and periodic collapse, such as the Great Depression.
Today, we would also add the social-environmental effects of the various "externalities" of capitalist production, from plastic waste and carbon exhaust to global migrations, altered landscapes, and capitalist interventions into national political systems.
So, Capitalism does not have an "end goal" in a Christian or Hegelian sense, but it does have a telos, one that is simply its own abstract accumulation. This may have many benefits, especially for individual owners of capital. But, as many have pointed out, it is a powerful global system that has no necessary correlation to human goals, whether individual or social.
Capitalism is, of course, enmeshed with other systems that may constrain or be destroyed by it. But as abstract self-accumulation it is entirely indifferent to whether its profits come from brilliant new technologies and medicines or from utter destruction, war, and disease. We can even see this plainly in the frequent disconnect between the stock market and the news, whether "good" or "bad." Capital has its purposes, but they are only coincidentally human.