I understand that Chinese philosophy tends to venerate ancestors and the old. Does any, I suppose Confucian, concept revolve around the everyday notion of making your parents proud?
This is hardly an 'everyday notion', but there is a focus on glorifying one's parents. In the Book of Filial Piety, Confucius mentinoed that making one's name famous and glorifying one's parents is the end goal of filial piety:
When we have established our character by the practice of the (filial) course, so as to make our name famous in future ages and thereby glorify our parents, this is the end of filial piety. (James Legge's translation, courtesy of ctext.org)
The bolded part is 揚名於後世，以顯父母 in Chinese.